Introductory Psychology (PSY301, 2:00-3:330PM) – Test 3
Tuesday, November 2, 2010
1. Gladys is a therapist who is constantly reminding her clients that people have a natural capacity for personal growth and positive qualities. Gladys likely endorses the _____ of personality.
A. psychodynamic perspective
B. behavioral perspective
C. learning perspective
D. trait perspective
E. humanistic perspective
2. Kirby just got divorced. He is currently thinking about how disruptive and significant this life change will be for him. According to Lazarus, KirbyÕs behavior is an example of ____.
A. his failing to understand people of the opposite sex
B. secondary appraisal
C. daily hassles and uplifts
D. primary appraisal
E. the general adaptation syndrome
3. Which of the following is NOT true of expressive writing?
A. It is more helpful to write about a traumatic experience right after it has happened than to wait a while.
B. After people write about a traumatic experience for 3 or 4 days, they will begin to see improved health.
C. It usually leads to better sleep and better grades.
D. Writing helps people to find meaning in events that bother them.
E. People who benefit from expressive writing start to gain a new perspective and are able to develop a story over time.
4. How do researchers explain the fact that the teen pregnancy rate is two to four times higher in the U.S. than in other countries?
A. U.S. teens are more sexually active than teens in other countries.
B. U.S. teens arenÕt as worried about pregnancy as teens in other countries are.
C. There are more birth control options available in other countries than there are in the U.S.
D. U.S. teens have had less comprehensive sex education and less availability and use of condoms.
E. The U.S. teens have the lowest moral values because of the low rates of religious beliefs compared to teens in other countries.
5. Judy has feelings for Jared that she hasnÕt admitted even to herself. She writes uplifting song lyrics as an outlet for her feelings towards him. What would Freud call this?
A. word association
B. Freudian slip
C. Pre-conscious thinking
6. A key hormone shared by the central nervous system and the immune system is _____, which is produced in the hypothalamus and unites the stress and immune responses.
D. debycilin serotonin reuptake inhibitors (DSRIÕs)
E. corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Freud would say that trust issues as an adult would stem from
A. A traumatic experience as a young child
B. The fact that trust is difficult to establish
C. Trust being a silly concept
D. An under-developed Id
E. The defense mechanism projection
8. In the movie where people are asked to count the number of times a basketball is passed, most people on seeing it the first time fail to see a person in a gorilla suit walk across the screen. What does this illustrate?
A. PeopleÕs natural abilities to avoid negative or threatening information
B. When immersed in a trivial task, people can become so detail oriented that they may miss obvious issues in their lives.
C. Although people encoded the gorilla, their inability to label the object with words made it impossible to recall it later (e.g., the Whorf hypothesis).
D. The sensory store can only take in about 7 pieces of information at once.
E. Humans cannot multitask
9. Optimists explain the causes of bad events as ______, whereas pessimists explain them as _____.
A. internal, stable, and global / external, unstable, and specific
B. external, unstable, and specific / internal, stable, and global
C. internal, unstable, and global / external, stable, and specific
D. external, stable, and global / internal, unstable, and specific
E. stable and unstable / internal and external
10. Which of the following would be an example of a feeling regulator?
A. A Longhorn football shirt
B. Several food items that have expired in your pantry
C. A playlist that you listen to before going to parties
D. An poster on the outside of your office door
E. Papers scattered across your bedroom.
11. According to the statistical analyses of the various strategies used by the class to conceal their emotions (in response to the stimuli shown on the screen), which of the following strategies was the most successful strategy?
A. Controlling the feelings themselves
B. Distracting oneself from the stimuli
D. Controlling the expression of the emotion
E. Trying to feel a different emotion
12. Say you are studying with a group of people using an online chat room. If you think you and your study group function well, which of the following would you expect given what you have learned about Language Style Matching?
A. A variety of sentence structures
B. A score of .3 on the LSM
C. Lack of auxillary very usage
D. Frequent usage of all caps
E. A score of .8 on the LSM
13. You are a personality researcher and want to continue after the tradition of Henry MurrayÕs personology. This means you will be more interested in _______.
A. the whole person rather than specific traits
B. sexual fantasies rather than overt behaviors
C. overt behaviors rather than personal diaries
D. personality traits rather than self report questionnaires
E. Òdance with the person who brung you.Ó
14. According to the textbook, a _____ involves a psychological state, whereas a ______ involves a physiological state.
A. reflex / need
B. need / drive
C. drive / need
D. need / reflex
E. thought / memory
15. Leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are similar in that they are both ______.
A. related to feelings of satiety
B. related to feelings of hunger
16. At home Carrie was moody, self-centered, and bossy. At social events, Carrie was the life of the party. She was funny, happy, and demonstrated social graces that none of her family ever saw at home. What is JungÕs explanation of CarrieÕs behavior?
A. Carrie adopted her persona at parties.
B. Carrie became her mandala at parties.
C. Carrie was her anima at home.
D. Carrie was her archetype at home.
E. Carrie displayed repressive coping strategies in her dream persona at home.
17. Which of the following
is NOT true about Freud's psychosexual stages?
A. Difficulties in the oral stage can lead to lip biting or excessive gum chewing as an adult
B. Problems in the anal stage can lead to anal retentive behavior as an adult
C. Age during the latent stage ranges from 6-11 years old
D. The Oedipal complex occurs during the genital stage
E. The oral stage is based on a newbornÕs reflex to suck
18. Alexis has a complete lack of oxytocin in her body. Her body simply does not produce it. Which of the following will LEAST likely be affected by this lack of oxytocin.?
A. She will have trouble bonding with her baby after giving birth.
B. She will have difficulty loving and trusting her romantic partner.
C. She will experience difficulty when trying to have an orgasm.
D. She will not grow closer to her child through breast-feeding.
E. She will have difficulty bonding and trusting others in general.
19. According to Maslow, self-actualization is possible ______.
A. at any time
B. only after love and belongingness needs are fulfilled
C. after other-actualization has been achieved
D. in childhood
E. only after all other needs have been fulfilled
20. The broaden-and-build model of emotion was proposed to describe _____.
A. the adaptiveness of negative emotion
B. the nature of emotions among architects
C. the difference between high and low arousal emotions
D. the discrepancies between PlutchikÕs and TompkinsÕ models
E. the adaptiveness of positive emotion
21. According to class, which of the following is true of a personÕs facebook profile?
A. You can accurately judge how neurotic a person is.
B. You can accurately judge how open a person it.
C. It is easy to fake personality traits via your facebook profile.
D. You cannot accurately judge how extraverted a person it.
E. You are not able to accurately tell what a personÕs personality is like from their facebook profile.
22. Which of the following plays an important role in glucose control?
A. The sugarometer
B. The small intestine
E. The stomach
23. Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in ______.
A. enhanced intrinsic motivation
B. enhanced extrinsic motivation
C. reduced intrinsic motivation
D. reduced extrinsic motivation
E. neutral motivation
24. In class you were given a random profession and asked to create a personal narrative for how you ended up in that profession. This narrative was based on real events from your own life. What does this teach us about identity?
A. It doesnÕt matter whether the story you create is true or not. The point of the story is that it gives a person meaning and purpose in their life.
B. It tells us that people are dishonest and that you canÕt trust identity narratives.
C. It teaches us that people will be happy in any profession that they choose.
D. It teaches us that traits and personal concerns are the most important levels of McAdamsÕ 3 level approach.
E. It teaches us that our life experiences can serve as the basis of almost any career path. Depending on the person, a childhood accident can lead a person into becoming a dancer, an architect, or police officer. This idea is also the basis of MaslowÕs approach to personality.
25. Which of the following depicts someone high on the trait of Openness?
A. When Eduardo goes to a restaurant he makes friends with all of the surrounding tables. He tells jokes and talks with his dinner companions well into the evening.
B. When Sandra goes to a restaurant, she is very demanding of the servers. She also tends to be a poor tipper.
C. When Alex goes to a restaurant he always makes his reservations on time. He also tends to straighten the forks and knives before ordering.
D. When Willy goes to a restaurant, he orders the most adventurous and unique sounding thing on the menu.
E. When Rosa goes to a restaurant, she is very friendly and polite to the servers. She is also a good tipper.
26. FreudÕs theory of personality most closely resembles a(n) ____ model while the Big Five personality traits most closely resembles a(n) ____ model.
A. transgenic; clone
B. onion skin; core
C. core; onion skin
D. nature; nurture
E. clone; transgenic
27. As a teenager, you begin to believe that the ideas associated with Judaism fit better with your own views, although you were raised Catholic. According to McAdams, which of the following statements is true about the situation?
A. You are expressing consistencies in behavior, which are at the level of traits
B. You are completing the OCEAN model of personality
C. You have an unresolved Oedipus complex
D. You are developing values, which are at the level of personal concerns
E. You are an actor deciding how you will behave across situations
28. Alicia, a 32 year old woman, is looking through profiles on an online dating site. She has decided it is time to find someone with whom she can settle down and get married. Which of the following would she be most likely to contact given what you know about mate selection strategies?
A. A 33 year old wealthy corporate executive with trouble being faithful
B. A 42 year old, businessman who is ready for emotional commitment
C. A 22 year old handsome surf instructor who is at the peak of his sexual abilities
D. A 27 year old committed, nice, and currently unemployed chef
E. A 70 year old retiree with a great sense of humor and a knack for canasta
29. The fire alarm goes off while you are in class. Which of the following should occur according to the James-Lange Theory of emotion?
A. You begin to rush for the exits and only then do you feel fearful
B. You become fearful and that drives you to leap into action
C. You wonder how long it will take everyone in the building to exit if they only use the front doors; in order to prevent yourself from being anxious you distract yourself with other thoughts
D. You fall asleep; your parasympathetic nervous system prevents you from acting before your emotion has occurred
E. You become happy that youÕre getting out of class early; you have no physiological response so only emotion occurs.
30. Juan finds that he cannot get his mind off the exam he is going to take later in the day. If Juan decides to go to the gym during his free time before the exam, he is using which emotional regulation strategy?
A. Modification of the situation
B. Change of Cognition
C. Selection of the situation
D. Modulation of Response
31. Edwin and Sasha are participating in a study looking at sexual arousal throughout the day. At 4 different times each day they get a text message asking them if they are sexually aroused or not. There is also a physiological measure that is given alongside the verbal question. Who is likely to be the most accurate in knowing when they are physiologically aroused?
A. Sasha will be the most accurate because women are more in tuned to their bodies.
B. Edwin because physiological arousal is more highly correlated with a verbal response in men than in women.
C. Sasha and Edwin will be equally accurate.
D. Neither Sasha nor Edwin will be accurate.
E. Edwin will be the most accurate because men are physiologically aroused at all times of the day.
32. Paulo can is characterized as very extroverted while Marie is characterized as very introverted. Which of the following would be most likely given what was discussed in lecture about personality?
A. Across all situations, Paulo is always more outgoing than Marie
B. Marie is louder than Paulo when they are in the library
C. After going to parties, Marie feels exhilarated while Paulo feels exhausted.
D. Marie has more fun than Paulo
E. Paulo is more willing to try new foods than Marie.
33. Which of the following is NOT true of animal personality?
A. Animal models are important for understanding human personality.
B. There is evidence that mammals have personality but not other animals, like fish, birds, and squid.
C. Animal personality research can be used to match dogs and owners.
D. The personalities of bomb detection dogs is important in assessing which dogs will be successful in the field (e.g., Iraq, Afghanistan).
E. Flies have personalities.
34. _____ is associated with high levels of emotional well-being, successful coping, and good health.
A. A gloomy disposition
B. An internal locus of control
C. Strong extrinsic motivation
D. Type-A behavior
E. Being able to shut off emotional reactions to upsetting events
35. Greg is missing a lot of deadlines at work and is having a hard time understanding the new software that his office has decided to adopt. Instead of embracing his feelings of incompetence he tells his other coworkers that he thinks that their boss is incompetent and overly demanding. Greg is most likely using which of the following defense mechanisms?
D. Reaction formation
E. Greg is just a bully
36. Elissa and Jared went on a date last night. They ate at a very nice restaurant before going to a scary movie. The next night Elissa went on a date with Demitri. They also ate at a very nice restaurant and saw a movie. They, however, saw a funny movie instead of a scary movie. Based on SchachterÕs theory of emotion, what would you predict?
A. Elissa will feel more connected to Demitri because funny movies are more light hearted.
B. Elissa will prefer Jared because she will misattribute her physiological response to the scary movie with romantic feelings towards him.
C. Elissa will prefer Dimitri because she has now associated scary things with Jared.
D. Elissa will prefer Jared because seeing scary movies after eating increases the hormone oxytocin.
E. Elissa will prefer Demitri because he likes bridges.
37. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MTBI) personality test _____.
A. is considered the best way to measure intelligence
B. is an example of a projective personality test
C. is an example of a thematic apperception test (TAT)
D. is an empirically keyed test that demonstrates strong reliability and validity
E. is widely used in business settings, even though results of empirical studies suggest that the measure is not reliable
38. Your roommate has been engaging in risky sexual behavior all semester, yet she denies that anything is wrong. She is likely in the ____ stage of the stages of change model.
A. preparation / determination
39. _____ nearly derailed the scientific study of personality by challenging the assumption that personality traits are _____.
A. Jung / parts of dreams
B. Freud / consciously expressed
C. Horney / masculine
D. Bandura / learned
E. Mischel / consistent
40. Although many individuals use both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, over the long term, _____.
A. emotion-focused coping rather than problem-focused coping usually works best
B. problem-focused coping rather than emotion-focused coping usually works best
C. both problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping strategies are equally effective
D. neither problem-focused nor emotion-focused coping strategies are effective
E. distraction-focused coping is something that most experts prefer
41. According to the concept of _____, any aspect of life that enhances our positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short period of time.
A. the broaden-and-build model
B. display rules
D. classical conditioning
E. the hedonic treadmill
42. Who is more likely to be hungry when they look at the clock and see that it is 6:30 PM?
A. Women are more likely to be hungry because they use internal cues like stomach grumbling which always occurs at 6:30 PM.
B. Men are more likely to be hungry because they use external cues like time and place to signal that it is time for dinner.
C. Women are more likely to be hungry because they use external cues like time and place to signal that it is time for dinner.
D. Men are more likely to be hungry because they us internal cues like stomach grumbling which always occurs at 6:30 PM
E. Neither, everyone eats dinner at 7:30PM.
43. Projective tests are most closely aligned with which theoretical approach to personality?
C. Social cognitive
44. Social desirability is _____.
A. a major problem with self-report assessments
B. being considered as an addition in the big five personality inventory
C. negatively correlated with self efficacy
D. a major motivational component of the psychodynamic approach
E. just another word for nothing left to lose
45. You are sad and your friend says, Òjust put on a happy face.Ó Will this simple advice work?
A. No, because your pre-existing emotion of sadness will cause conflict with a fake smile which will result in higher anxiety than before.
B. It depends. Putting on a happy face tends to work with people who are used to simulating emotions. However, it does not work with people who are more genuine in their daily emotional expressions.
C. Yes, because putting on a false smile will cause others to be happier which, in turn, will make the fake smiler happier.
D. Yes, because facial feedback of a smile automatically increases the odds that the person will feel happier.
E. No, because trait theories of mood suggest that sad or depressed people are likely to feel sad and depressed across contexts and over time.