Reference List of Writing/Disclosure Studies

 

 

(Note: This list was updated in April, 2013. Please send any new or overlooked published references to Pennebaker@mail.utexas.edu)

 

 

 

  

Alpers, G. W., Winzelberg, A. J., Classen, C., Dev, P., Koopman, C., Roberts, H., et al. (2005). Evaluation of computerized text anaylsis in an Internet breast cancer support group. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 343-358.

Ames, S. C., Patten, C. A., Offord, K. P., Pennebaker, J. W., Croghan, I. T., Tri, D. M., Stevens, S. R., & Hurt, R. D. (2005).  Expressive writing intervention for young adult cigarette smokers.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 1555-1570

Ames, S.C., Patten, C.A., Werch, C.E., Echols, J.D., Schroeder, D.R., Stevens, S.R., Pennebaker, J.W., & Hurt, R.D. (in press). Expressive writing as a nicotine dependence treatment adjunct for young adult smokers.  Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

Arigo, D., & Smyth, J. M. (2012). The benefits of expressive writing on sleep difficulty and appearance concerns for college women. Psychology & Health,27(2), 210-226.

Ashley, L., O'Connor, D. B., & Jones, F. (2011). Effects of emotional disclosure in caregivers: Moderating role of alexithymia. Stress and Health,27(5), 376-387.

Ashley, L., O’Connor, D. B., & Jones, F. (2013). A randomized trial of written emotional disclosure interventions in school teachers: Controlling for positive expectancies and effects on health and job satisfaction. Psychology, health & medicine, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.

Averill, A. J., Kasarskis, E. J., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2013). Expressive disclosure to improve well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A randomised, controlled trial. Psychology & health, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.

Baddeley, J. L., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). A postdeployment expressive writing intervention for military couples: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of traumatic stress, 24(5), 581-585.

Baikie, K. A. (2008). Who does expressive writing work for? Examination of alexithymia, splitting, and repressive coping style as moderators of the expressive writing paradigm. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 61-66.

Baikie, K. A., Geerligs, L., & Wilhelm, K. (2012). Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: An online randomized controlled trial. Journal of affective disorders, 136(3), 310-319.

Baikie, K.A., & Wilhelm, K.  (2005). Emotional and physical health benefits of expressive writing.  Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 338-346.

Baker, J. R., & Moore, S. M. (2008). Blogging as a social tool: a psychological examination of the effects of blogging. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 747-74

Barry, L. M., & Singer, G. H. S. (2001). Reducing maternal psychological distress after the NICU experience through journal writing. Journal of Early Intervention, 24, 287-297.

Batten, S. V., Follette, V. M., & Palm, K. M. (2002). Physical and psychological effects of written disclosure among sexual abuse survivors. Behavior Therapy, 33, 107-122.

Baum, E. S., & Rude, S. S. (2013). Acceptance-Enhanced Expressive Writing Prevents Symptoms in Participants with Low Initial Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(1), 35-42.

Beckwith, K. M., Greenberg, M.A., & Gevirtz, R. (2005).  Autonomic effects of expressive writing in individuals with elevated blood pressure.  Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 197-209.

Bernard, M., Jackson, C., & Jones, C. (2006).  Written emotional disclosure following first-episode psychosis: Effects on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.  British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 403-415.

Boals, A. (2012). The use of meaning making in expressive writing: When meaning is beneficial. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(4), 393-409.

Boals, A., Banks, J. B., & Hayslip Jr, B. (2012). A self-administered, mild form of exposure therapy for older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 16(2), 154-161.

Bolton, G., Howlett, S., Lago, C., & Wright, J.K. (Eds.) (2004).  Writing cures: An introductory handbook of writing in counselling and therapy.New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Bond, M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2012). Automated computer-based feedback in expressive writing. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 1014-1018.

Booth, R. J., & Davison, K. P. (2003). Relating to our worlds in a psychobiological context: The impact of disclosure on self-generation and immunity. In J. Wilce (Ed.), Social and Cultural Lives of Immune Systems (pp. 36-48). London and New York: Routledge.

Booth, R.J., Petrie, K.J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1997). Changes in circulating lymphocyte numbers following emotional disclosure: Evidence of buffering? Stress Medicine, 13, 23-29.

Bornstein, R. F. (2010). Gender schemas, gender roles, and expressive writing: Toward a process-focused model. Sex roles, 63(3-4), 173-177.

Bower, J. E., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., & Fahey, J. L. (2003). Finding meaning and its association with natural killer cell cytotoxicity among participants in a bereavement-related disclosure intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 146-155.

Brewin, C.R. & Lennard, H. (1999). Effects of mode of writing on emotional narratives. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 355-361.

Broderick, J. E., Junghaenel, D. U., & Schwartz, J. E. (2005). Written emotional expression produces health benefits in fibromyalgia patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 326-334.

Broderick, J. E., Stone, A. A., Smyth, J. M., Kaell, A. T. (2004). The feasibility and effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention for rheumatoid arthritis via home-based videotaped instructions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 50-59.

Brown, E.J. & Heimberg, R.G. (2001). Effects of writing about rape: Evaluating Pennebaker's paradigm with a severe trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 781.

Burke, P. A., & Bradley, R. G. (2006). Language use in imagined dialogue and narrative disclosures of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 141-146.

Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2008). Effects of (very) brief writing on health; The two-minute miracle. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 9-14.

Burton, C. M., & King. L. A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 150-163.

Cameron, L. D., & Nicholls, G. (1998). Expression of stressful experiences through writing: Effects of a self-regulation manipulation for pessimists and optimists. Health Psychology, 17, 84-92.

Campbell, R.S. & Pennebaker, J.W.  (2003). The secret life of pronouns: Flexibility in writing style and physical health.  Psychological Science, 14, 60-65.

Carmack, C. L., BasenEngquist, K., Yuan, Y., Greisinger, A., RodriguezBigas, M., Wolff, R. A., ... & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). Feasibility of an expressivedisclosure group intervention for posttreatment colorectal cancer patients. Cancer, 117(21), 4993-5002.

Casey, C.Y., Greenberg, M.A., Nicassio, P.M., Harpin, R.E., & Hubbard, D. (2007, in press).  Transition from acute to chronic pain and disability: A model including cognitive, affective, and trauma factors.  Pain

Chaudoir, S. R., & Fisher, J. D. (2010). The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychological bulletin, 136(2), 236.

Cho, S., Bernstein, K. S., Cho, S., & Roh, S. (2012). Logo-autobiography and its effectiveness on depressed Korean immigrant women: A replication study.Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(6), p51.

Christensen A.J., Edwards D.L., Wiebe J.S., Benotsch E.G., McKelvey L., Andrews M., Lubaroff D.M. (1996). Effect of verbal self-disclosure on natural killer cell activity: Moderating influence of cynical hostility. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 150-155.

Christensen, A. J. & Smith, T. W. (1993). Cynical hostility and cardiovascular reactivity during self-disclosure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 193-202.

Chung, C.K., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2008).  Variations in spacing of expressive writing sessions.  British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 15-21.

Cohen, G.L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., & Master, A. (2006).  Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention.  Science, 313, 1307-1310.

Comprone, J. C., & Ronald, K. J. (2010). Expressive writing: Exercises in a new progymnasmata. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4(1), 31-54.

Consedine, N. S., Krivoshekova, Y. S., & Magai, C. (2012). Play It (Again) Sam Linguistic Changes Predict Improved Mental and Physical Health Among Older Adults. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31(3), 240-262.

Cornoldi, C., Del Prete, F., Gallani, A., Sella, F., & Re, A. M. (2010). Components affecting expressive writing in typical and disabled writers.Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 23, 269-286.

Corter, A., & Petrie, K. J. (2011). Expressive writing in patients diagnosed with cancer. In Emotion Regulation and Well-Being (pp. 297-306). Springer New York.

Craft, M. A., Davis, G. C., & Paulson, R. M. (2013). Expressive writing in early breast cancer survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(2), 305-315.

Creswell, J.D., Lam, S., Stanton, A.L., Taylor, S.E., Bower, J.E., & Sherman, D.K. (2007). Does Self-Affirmation, Cognitive Processing, or Discovery of Meaning Explain Cancer-Related Health Benefits of Expressive Writing? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 238-250.

Culp, M. B., & Spann, S. (2010). The influence of writing on reading. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4(2), 284-289.

Danoff-Burg, S., Mosher, C. E., Seawell, A. H., & Agee, J. D. (2010). Does narrative writing instruction enhance the benefits of expressive writing?.Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 23(3), 341-352.

Davis, C. G., & McKearney, J. M. (2003). How do people grow from their experience with trauma or loss? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 477-492.

De Giacomo, P., L'Abate, L., Pennebaker, J. W., & Rumbaugh, D. (2010). Amplifications and applications of Pennebaker's analogic to digital model in health promotion, prevention, and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(5), 355-362.

De Moor, C., Sterner, J., Hall, M., Warneke, C., Gilani, Z., Amato, R., et al. (2002). A pilot study of the effects of expressive writing on psychological and behavioral adjustment in patients enrolled in a phase II trial of vaccine therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Health Psychology, 21, 615-619.

Deacon, B. J., Lickel, J. J., Possis, E. A., Abramowitz, J. S., Mahaffey, B., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. (2012). Do Cognitive Reappraisal and Diaphragmatic Breathing Augment Interoceptive Exposure for Anxiety Sensitivity?. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26(3), 257-269.

DeMarco, R. F., & Chan, K. (2013). The Sistah Powah Structured Writing Intervention: A Feasibility Study for Aging, Low-Income, HIV-Positive Black Women. American Journal of Health Promotion.

Deters, P. B., & Range, L. M. (2003). Does writing reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms? Violence and Victims, 18, 569-580.

Dolev-Cohen, M., & Barak, A. (2012). Adolescents’ use of Instant Messaging as a means of emotional relief. Computers in Human Behavior.

Donnelly, D. A., & Murray, E. J. (1991). Cognitive and emotional changes in written essays and therapy interviews. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 334-350.

Drake, J. E., & Winner, E. (2012). How children use drawing to regulate their emotions. Cognition & Emotion, (ahead-of-print), 1-9.

Earnhardt, J. L., Martz, D. M., Ballard, M. E., & Curtin, L. (2002). A writing intervention for negative body image: Pennebaker fails to surpass the placebo. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 17, 19-35.

East, P., Startup, H., Roberts, C., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Expressive writing and eating disorder features: A preliminary trial in a student sample of the impact of three writing tasks on eating disorder symptoms and associated cognitive, affective and interpersonal factors. European Eating Disorders Review, 18(3), 180-196.

Ellis, D. & Cromby, J. (2009) Inhibition and reappraisal within emotional disclosure: the embodying of narration. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22, 319-331.

Epstein, E.M., Sloan, D.M., & Marx, B.P. (2005).  Getting to the heart of the matter: Written disclosure, gender, and heart rate.  Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 413-419

Esterling, B. A., Antoni, M. H., Fletcher, M. A., Margulies, S., & Schneiderman, N. (1994). Emotional disclosure through writing or speaking modulates latent Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 130-140.

Facchin, F., Margola, D., Molgora, S., & Revenson, T. A. (2013). Effects of BenefitFocused Versus Standard Expressive Writing on Adolescents' SelfConcept During the High School Transition. Journal of Research on Adolescence.

Fernandez, I., Paez, D., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2009).  Comparison of expressive writing after the terrorist attacks of September 11th and March 11th.  International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9, 89-103.

Fivush, R., Marin, K., Crawford, M., Reynolds, M., & Brewin, C.R. (2007).  Children’s narratives and well-being.  Cognition and Emotion, 21, 1414-1434.

Floyd, K., Mikkelson, A.C., Hesse, C., & Pauley, P.M. (2007).  Affectionate writing reduces total cholesterol: Two randomized controlled trials.  Human Communication Research, 33, 119-142.

Francis, M.E. & Pennebaker, J.W. (1992). Putting stress into words: Writing about personal upheavals and health. American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, 280-287.

Frattaroli, J. (2006).  Experimental disclosure and its moderators: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 823-865.

Frattaroli, J., Thomas, M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2011).  Opening up in the classroom: Effects of expressive writing on graduate school entrance exam performance.  Emotion, 11,

Frayne, A., & Wade, T.D. (2006). A comparison of written emotional expression and planning with respect to bulimic symptoms and associated psychopathology. European Eating Disorders Review, 14, 329-340.

Freyd, J.J., Klest, B., & Allard, C.B.  (2005). Betrayal trauma: Relationship to physical health, psychological distress, and a written disclosure intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6, 83-104.

Frisina, P.G., Borod, J.C., & Lepore, S.J. (2004).  A meta-analysis of the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health outcomes of clinical populations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 629-634.

Furnes, B., & Dysvik, E. (2010). A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1. Patient preference and adherence, 4, 425.

Gallagher, P., & MacLachlan, M. (2002). Evaluating a written emotional disclosure homework intervention for lower-limb amputees.  Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 83, 1464-1466.

Gallant, M. D., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2003). Effects of an emotional disclosure writing task on the physical and psychological functioning of children of alcoholics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 21, 55-66.

Gamber, A. M., Lane-Loney, S., & Levine, M. P. (2013). Effects and Linguistic Analysis of Written Traumatic Emotional Disclosure in an Eating-Disordered Population. The Permanente Journal, 17(1), 16.

Gellaitry, G., Peters, K., Bloomfield, D., & Horne, R. (2010). Narrowing the gap: The effects of an expressive writing intervention on perceptions of actual and ideal emotional support in women who have completed treatment for early stage breast cancer. PsychoOncology, 19(1), 77-84.

Gidron, Y., Duncan, E., Lazar, A., Biderman, A., Tandeter, H., & Shvartzman, P. (2002). Effects of guided disclosure of stressful experiences on clinic visits and symptoms in frequent clinic attenders. Family Practice, 19, 161-166.

Gidron, Y., Gal, R., Freedman, S., Twiser, I., Lauden, A., Snir, Y., & Benjamin, J. (2001). Translating research findings to PTSD prevention: Results of a randomized-controlled pilot study, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 773-780.

Gidron, Y., Peri, T., Connolly, J. F., & Shalev, A. Y. (1996). Written disclosure in posttraumatic stress disorder: Is it beneficial for the patient? Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 184, 505- 507.

Gillam, T. (2010). The therapeutic value of writing. British Journal of Wellbeing• Vol, 1(6), 27.

Gillis, M.E., Lumley, M.A., Mosley-Williams, A., Leisen, J.C.C., & Roehrs, T.  (in press).  The health effects of at-home written emotional disclosure in fibromyalgia: A randomized trial.  Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

Gortner, E., Rude, S., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2006).  Benefits of expressive writing in lowering rumination and depressive symptoms.  Behavior Therapy, 37, 292-303

Graybeal, A., Seagal, J. D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2002). The role of story-making in disclosure writing: The psychometrics of narrative. Psychology and Health, 17, 571-581.

Greenberg, M. A., & Stone, A. A. (1992). Emotional disclosure about traumas and its relation to health: Effects of previous disclosure and trauma severity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 75-84.

Greenberg, M. A., Stone, A. A., & Wortman, C. B. (1996). Health and psychological effects of emotional disclosure: A test of the inhibition-confrontation approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 588-602.

große Deters, F., & Mehl, M. R. (2012). Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Guinther, P. M., Segal, D. L., & Bogaards, J. A. (2003). Gender differences in emotional processing among bereaved older adults. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 8, 15-33.

Halpert, A., Rybin, D., & Doros, G. (2010). Expressive writing is a promising therapeutic modality for the management of IBS: A pilot study. The American journal of gastroenterology.

Hamilton-West, K.E., & Quine, L. (2007). Effects of written emotional disclosure on health outcomes in patients with ankylosin spondylitis. Psychology and Health, 22, 637-657.

Harber, K.D., & Wenberg, K.E.  (2005).  Emotional disclosure and closeness to offenders.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 734-746.

Harber, K.D., & Cohen, D. (2005). the emotional broadcaster theory of social sharing.  Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 382-400.

Harber, K.D., Einav-Cohen, M., & Lang, F. (in press).  They heard a cry: Psycho-social resources moderate perception of others' distress.  European Journal of Social Psychology

Harris, A. H. S. (2006). Does expressive writing reduce health care utilization? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 243-252.

Harris, A. H. S., Thoresen, C. E., Humpheys, K., & Faul, J. (2005). Does Expressive Writing Affect Asthma?: A Randomized Trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 130-136.

Harvey, A.G. & Farrel, C.  (2003).  The efficacy of the Pennebaker-like writing intervention for poor sleepers.  Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1, 115-124.

Hemenover, S. H. (2003). The good, the bad, and the healthy: Impacts of emotional disclosure of trauma on resilient self-concept and psychological distress, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1236-1244.

Henry, E. A., Schlegel, R. J., Talley, A. E., Molix, L. A., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2010, November). The feasibility and effectiveness of expressive writing for rural and urban breast cancer survivors. In oncology nursing forum (Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 749-757). Oncology Nursing Society.

Hevey, D., Wilczkiewicz, E., & Horgan, J. H. (2012). Type D moderates the effects of expressive writing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following myocardial infarction (MI). The Irish Journal of Psychology, 33(2-3), 107-114.

Hijazi, A. M., Tavakoli, S., Slavin-Spenny, O. M., & Lumley, M. A. (2011). Targeting interventions: Moderators of the effects of expressive writing and assertiveness training on the adjustment of international university students.International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 33(2), 101-112.

Hirai, M., Skidmore, S. T., Clum, G. A., & Dolma, S. (2012). An Investigation of the Efficacy of Online Expressive Writing for Trauma-Related Psychological Distress in Hispanic Individuals. Behavior therapy.

Hockemeyer, J., Smyth, J., Anderson, C., & Stone, A. (1999). Is it safe to write? Evaluating the short-term distress produced by writing about emotionally traumatic experiences. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61 [Abstract]

Honos-Webb, L., Harrick, E.A., Stiles, W.B., & Park, C. (2000). Assimilation of traumatic experiences and physical-health outcomes: Cautions for the Pennebaker paradigm. Psychotherapy, 37, 307-314.

Horn, A.B., & Mehl, M.R. (2004).  Expressives Schreiben als Copingtechnik: Ein Überblick über den Stand der Forschung.  Verhaltenstherapie, 14, 274-283.

Horn, A.B., Possel, P., & Hautzinger, M. (2011, in press).  Promoting adaptive emotion regulation and coping in adolescence: A school-based program.  Journal of Health Psychology, http://hpq.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/08/13/1359105310372814.

Hoyt, M. A., Stanton, A. L., Bower, J. E., Thomas, K. S., Litwin, M. S., Breen, E. C., & Irwin, M. R. (2013). Inflammatory Biomarkers and Emotional Approach Coping in Men with Prostate Cancer. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.

Hoyt, T., & Yeater, E. A. (2011). The Effects of Negative Emotion and Expressive Writing on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(6), 549-569.

Hsu, M. C., Schubiner, H., Stracks, J. S., & Clauw, D. J. (2010). Sustained pain reduction through affective self-awareness in fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(10), 1064-1070.

Imrie, S., & Troop, N.A. (2012). A pilot study on the effects and feasibility of compassion-focused expressive writing in Day Hospice patients.  Palliative and Supportive Care, doi:10.1017/S1478951512000181

Jacobson, L. T., & Reid, R. (2012). Improving the writing performance of high school students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and writing difficulties. Exceptionality, 20(4), 218-234.

JensenJohansen, M. B., Christensen, S., Valdimarsdottir, H., Zakowski, S., Jensen, A. B., Bovbjerg, D. H., & Zachariae, R. (2012). Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancerrelated distress in Danish breast cancer survivors—results from a nationwide randomized clinical trial. PsychoOncology.

Johnston, O., Startup, H., Lavender, A., Godfrey, E., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Therapeutic writing as an intervention for symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa: Effects and mechanism of change. International Journal of Eating Disorders,43(5), 405-419.

Joseph, L.M., & Greenberg, M.A. (2001).  The effects of a career transition program on reemployment success in laid-off professionals.  Consulting Psychology Journal, 53, 169-181.

Kalantari, M., Yule, W., Dyregrov, A., Neshatdoost, H., & Ahmadi, S. J. (2012). Efficacy of writing for recovery on traumatic grief symptoms of Afghani refugee bereaved adolescents: a randomized control trial. OMEGA--Journal of Death and Dying, 65(2), 139-150.

Kaptein, A. A., Lyons, A. C., Pearson, A. S., van der Geest, S., Haan, J., Meulenberg, F., & Smyth, J. M. (2012). Storying stories. Medical Education Development, 2(1), e7.

Kearns, M. C., Edwards, K. M., Calhoun, K. S., & Gidycz, C. A. (2010). Disclosure of sexual victimization: The effects of Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm on physical and psychological distress. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 11(2), 193-209.

Kelley J.E., Lumley M.A., Leisen J.C. (1997). Health effects of emotional disclosure in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Health Psychology, 16, 331-340.

Kellogg, R. T., Mertz, H. K., & Morgan, M. (2010). Do gains in working memory capacity explain the written self-disclosure effect?. Cognition and Emotion,24(1), 86-93.

Kelly, A. E., Klusas, J. A., von Weiss, R. T., & Kenny, C. (2001). What is it about revealing secrets that is beneficial? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 651-665.

Kelly, R. E., Wood, A. M., Shearman, K., Phillips, S., & Mansell, W. (2012). Encouraging acceptance of ambivalence using the expressive writing paradigm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,85(2), 220-228.

Kim, Y. (2008). Effects of expressive writing among bilinguals: Exploring psychological well-being and social behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 43-47.

King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 798-807.

King, L. A. & Miner, K. N. (2000). Writing about the perceived benefits of traumatic events: Implications for physical health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 220-230.

Kirk, B. A., Schutte, N. S., & Hine, D. W. (2011). The Effect of an ExpressiveWriting Intervention for Employees on Emotional SelfEfficacy, Emotional Intelligence, Affect, and Workplace Incivility. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(1), 179-195.

Klapow, J.C., Schmidt, S.M., Taylor, L.A., Roller, P., Li, Q., Calhoun, J.W., Wallander, J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2001). Symptom management in older primary care patients: Feasibility of an experimental, written self-disclosure protocol. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 905-911.

Klein, K., & Boals, A. (2001). Expressive writing can increase working memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 520-533.

Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Farrell, A. D., Allison, K. W., Meyer, A. L., Sullivan, T. N., & Greene, A. Y. (2011). A school-based expressive writing intervention for at-risk urban adolescents' aggressive behavior and emotional lability.Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 693-705.

Kloss, J.D., & Lisman, S.A. (2002). An exposure-based examination of the effects of written emotional disclosure. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 31-46.

Knowles, E. D., Wearing, J. R., & Campos, B. (2011). Culture and the health benefits of expressive writing. Social Psychological and Personality Science,2(4), 408-415.

Ko, H.-C., & Kuo, F.-Y. (in press). Can blogging enhance subjective well-being through self-disclosure? CyberPsychology & Behavior.

Koopman, C., Ismailji, T., Holmes, D., Classen, C.C., Palesh, O., & Wales, T. (2005).  The effects of expressive writing on pain, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of intimate partner violence.  Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 211-221.

Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M. (2000). Writing projects: Lessening undergraduates' unique suicidal bereavement. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 30, 50-60.

Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M. (2002). Does writing about suicidal thoughts and feelings reduce them? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32, 428-440.

Kowalski, R. M., & Cantrell, C. C. (2002). Intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of complaints. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 26, 26-33.

Kraaij, V., van Emmerik, A., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M. J., Lo-Fo-Wong, D., van Empelen, P., ... & Maes, S. (2010). Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 80(2), 200-204.

Krantz, A.M. & Pennebaker, J.W. (2007). Expressive dance, writing, trauma, and health: When words have a body. In I.A. Serlin, J Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (Eds), Whole person healthcare Vol 3: The Arts and Health (pp 201-229). Westport, CT: Praeger.

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