(Note: This list was updated in April, 2013. Please send any new or overlooked published references to Pennebaker@mail.utexas.edu)
Alpers, G. W., Winzelberg, A. J., Classen, C., Dev, P., Koopman, C., Roberts, H., et al. (2005). Evaluation of computerized text anaylsis in an Internet breast cancer support group. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 343-358.
Ames, S. C., Patten, C. A., Offord, K. P., Pennebaker, J. W., Croghan, I. T., Tri, D. M., Stevens, S. R., & Hurt, R. D. (2005). Expressive writing intervention for young adult cigarette smokers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 1555-1570
Ames, S.C., Patten, C.A., Werch, C.E., Echols, J.D., Schroeder, D.R., Stevens, S.R., Pennebaker, J.W., & Hurt, R.D. (in press). Expressive writing as a nicotine dependence treatment adjunct for young adult smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research.
Arigo, D., & Smyth, J. M. (2012). The benefits of expressive writing on sleep difficulty and appearance concerns for college women. Psychology & Health,27(2), 210-226.
Ashley, L., O'Connor, D. B., & Jones, F. (2011). Effects of emotional disclosure in caregivers: Moderating role of alexithymia. Stress and Health,27(5), 376-387.
Ashley, L., O’Connor, D. B., & Jones, F. (2013). A randomized trial of written emotional disclosure interventions in school teachers: Controlling for positive expectancies and effects on health and job satisfaction. Psychology, health & medicine, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.
Averill, A. J., Kasarskis, E. J., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2013). Expressive disclosure to improve well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A randomised, controlled trial. Psychology & health, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.
Baddeley, J. L., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). A postdeployment expressive writing intervention for military couples: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of traumatic stress, 24(5), 581-585.
Baikie, K. A. (2008). Who does expressive writing work for? Examination of alexithymia, splitting, and repressive coping style as moderators of the expressive writing paradigm. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 61-66.
Baikie, K. A., Geerligs, L., & Wilhelm, K. (2012). Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: An online randomized controlled trial. Journal of affective disorders, 136(3), 310-319.
Baikie, K.A., & Wilhelm, K. (2005). Emotional and physical health benefits of expressive writing. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 338-346.
Baker, J. R., & Moore, S. M. (2008). Blogging as a social tool: a psychological examination of the effects of blogging. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 747-74
Barry, L. M., & Singer, G. H. S. (2001). Reducing maternal psychological distress after the NICU experience through journal writing. Journal of Early Intervention, 24, 287-297.
Batten, S. V., Follette, V. M., & Palm, K. M. (2002). Physical and psychological effects of written disclosure among sexual abuse survivors. Behavior Therapy, 33, 107-122.
Baum, E. S., & Rude, S. S. (2013). Acceptance-Enhanced Expressive Writing Prevents Symptoms in Participants with Low Initial Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(1), 35-42.
Beckwith, K. M., Greenberg, M.A., & Gevirtz, R. (2005). Autonomic effects of expressive writing in individuals with elevated blood pressure. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 197-209.
Bernard, M., Jackson, C., & Jones, C. (2006). Written emotional disclosure following first-episode psychosis: Effects on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 403-415.
Boals, A. (2012). The use of meaning making in expressive writing: When meaning is beneficial. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(4), 393-409.
Boals, A., Banks, J. B., & Hayslip Jr, B. (2012). A self-administered, mild form of exposure therapy for older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 16(2), 154-161.
Bolton, G., Howlett, S., Lago, C., & Wright, J.K. (Eds.) (2004). Writing cures: An introductory handbook of writing in counselling and therapy.New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Bond, M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2012). Automated computer-based feedback in expressive writing. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 1014-1018.
Booth, R. J., & Davison, K. P. (2003). Relating to our worlds in a psychobiological context: The impact of disclosure on self-generation and immunity. In J. Wilce (Ed.), Social and Cultural Lives of Immune Systems (pp. 36-48). London and New York: Routledge.
Booth, R.J., Petrie, K.J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1997). Changes in circulating lymphocyte numbers following emotional disclosure: Evidence of buffering? Stress Medicine, 13, 23-29.
Bornstein, R. F. (2010). Gender schemas, gender roles, and expressive writing: Toward a process-focused model. Sex roles, 63(3-4), 173-177.
Bower, J. E., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., & Fahey, J. L. (2003). Finding meaning and its association with natural killer cell cytotoxicity among participants in a bereavement-related disclosure intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 146-155.
Brewin, C.R. & Lennard, H. (1999). Effects of mode of writing on emotional narratives. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 355-361.
Broderick, J. E., Junghaenel, D. U., & Schwartz, J. E. (2005). Written emotional expression produces health benefits in fibromyalgia patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 326-334.
Broderick, J. E., Stone, A. A., Smyth, J. M., Kaell, A. T. (2004). The feasibility and effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention for rheumatoid arthritis via home-based videotaped instructions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 50-59.
Brown, E.J. & Heimberg, R.G. (2001). Effects of writing about rape: Evaluating Pennebaker's paradigm with a severe trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 781.
Burke, P. A., & Bradley, R. G. (2006). Language use in imagined dialogue and narrative disclosures of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 141-146.
Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2008). Effects of (very) brief writing on health; The two-minute miracle. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 9-14.
Burton, C. M., & King. L. A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 150-163.
Cameron, L. D., & Nicholls, G. (1998). Expression of stressful experiences through writing: Effects of a self-regulation manipulation for pessimists and optimists. Health Psychology, 17, 84-92.
Campbell, R.S. & Pennebaker, J.W. (2003). The secret life of pronouns: Flexibility in writing style and physical health. Psychological Science, 14, 60-65.
Carmack, C. L., Basen‐Engquist, K., Yuan, Y., Greisinger, A., Rodriguez‐Bigas, M., Wolff, R. A., ... & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). Feasibility of an expressive‐disclosure group intervention for post‐treatment colorectal cancer patients. Cancer, 117(21), 4993-5002.
Casey, C.Y., Greenberg, M.A., Nicassio, P.M., Harpin, R.E., & Hubbard, D. (2007, in press). Transition from acute to chronic pain and disability: A model including cognitive, affective, and trauma factors. Pain
Chaudoir, S. R., & Fisher, J. D. (2010). The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychological bulletin, 136(2), 236.
Cho, S., Bernstein, K. S., Cho, S., & Roh, S. (2012). Logo-autobiography and its effectiveness on depressed Korean immigrant women: A replication study.Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(6), p51.
Christensen A.J., Edwards D.L., Wiebe J.S., Benotsch E.G., McKelvey L., Andrews M., Lubaroff D.M. (1996). Effect of verbal self-disclosure on natural killer cell activity: Moderating influence of cynical hostility. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 150-155.
Christensen, A. J. & Smith, T. W. (1993). Cynical hostility and cardiovascular reactivity during self-disclosure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 193-202.
Chung, C.K., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2008). Variations in spacing of expressive writing sessions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 15-21.
Cohen, G.L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., & Master, A. (2006). Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention. Science, 313, 1307-1310.
Comprone, J. C., & Ronald, K. J. (2010). Expressive writing: Exercises in a new progymnasmata. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4(1), 31-54.
Consedine, N. S., Krivoshekova, Y. S., & Magai, C. (2012). Play It (Again) Sam Linguistic Changes Predict Improved Mental and Physical Health Among Older Adults. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31(3), 240-262.
Cornoldi, C., Del Prete, F., Gallani, A., Sella, F., & Re, A. M. (2010). Components affecting expressive writing in typical and disabled writers.Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 23, 269-286.
Corter, A., & Petrie, K. J. (2011). Expressive writing in patients diagnosed with cancer. In Emotion Regulation and Well-Being (pp. 297-306). Springer New York.
Craft, M. A., Davis, G. C., & Paulson, R. M. (2013). Expressive writing in early breast cancer survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(2), 305-315.
Creswell, J.D., Lam, S., Stanton, A.L., Taylor, S.E., Bower, J.E., & Sherman, D.K. (2007). Does Self-Affirmation, Cognitive Processing, or Discovery of Meaning Explain Cancer-Related Health Benefits of Expressive Writing? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 238-250.
Culp, M. B., & Spann, S. (2010). The influence of writing on reading. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4(2), 284-289.
Danoff-Burg, S., Mosher, C. E., Seawell, A. H., & Agee, J. D. (2010). Does narrative writing instruction enhance the benefits of expressive writing?.Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 23(3), 341-352.
Davis, C. G., & McKearney, J. M. (2003). How do people grow from their experience with trauma or loss? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 477-492.
De Giacomo, P., L'Abate, L., Pennebaker, J. W., & Rumbaugh, D. (2010). Amplifications and applications of Pennebaker's analogic to digital model in health promotion, prevention, and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(5), 355-362.
De Moor, C., Sterner, J., Hall, M., Warneke, C., Gilani, Z., Amato, R., et al. (2002). A pilot study of the effects of expressive writing on psychological and behavioral adjustment in patients enrolled in a phase II trial of vaccine therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Health Psychology, 21, 615-619.
Deacon, B. J., Lickel, J. J., Possis, E. A., Abramowitz, J. S., Mahaffey, B., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. (2012). Do Cognitive Reappraisal and Diaphragmatic Breathing Augment Interoceptive Exposure for Anxiety Sensitivity?. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26(3), 257-269.
DeMarco, R. F., & Chan, K. (2013). The Sistah Powah Structured Writing Intervention: A Feasibility Study for Aging, Low-Income, HIV-Positive Black Women. American Journal of Health Promotion.
Deters, P. B., & Range, L. M. (2003). Does writing reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms? Violence and Victims, 18, 569-580.
Dolev-Cohen, M., & Barak, A. (2012). Adolescents’ use of Instant Messaging as a means of emotional relief. Computers in Human Behavior.
Donnelly, D. A., & Murray, E. J. (1991). Cognitive and emotional changes in written essays and therapy interviews. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 334-350.
Drake, J. E., & Winner, E. (2012). How children use drawing to regulate their emotions. Cognition & Emotion, (ahead-of-print), 1-9.
Earnhardt, J. L., Martz, D. M., Ballard, M. E., & Curtin, L. (2002). A writing intervention for negative body image: Pennebaker fails to surpass the placebo. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 17, 19-35.
East, P., Startup, H., Roberts, C., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Expressive writing and eating disorder features: A preliminary trial in a student sample of the impact of three writing tasks on eating disorder symptoms and associated cognitive, affective and interpersonal factors. European Eating Disorders Review, 18(3), 180-196.
Ellis, D. & Cromby, J. (2009) Inhibition and reappraisal within emotional disclosure: the embodying of narration. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22, 319-331.
Epstein, E.M., Sloan, D.M., & Marx, B.P. (2005). Getting to the heart of the matter: Written disclosure, gender, and heart rate. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 413-419
Esterling, B. A., Antoni, M. H., Fletcher, M. A., Margulies, S., & Schneiderman, N. (1994). Emotional disclosure through writing or speaking modulates latent Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 130-140.
Facchin, F., Margola, D., Molgora, S., & Revenson, T. A. (2013). Effects of Benefit‐Focused Versus Standard Expressive Writing on Adolescents' Self‐Concept During the High School Transition. Journal of Research on Adolescence.
Fernandez, I., Paez, D., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2009). Comparison of expressive writing after the terrorist attacks of September 11th and March 11th. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9, 89-103.
Fivush, R., Marin, K., Crawford, M., Reynolds, M., & Brewin, C.R. (2007). Children’s narratives and well-being. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 1414-1434.
Floyd, K., Mikkelson, A.C., Hesse, C., & Pauley, P.M. (2007). Affectionate writing reduces total cholesterol: Two randomized controlled trials. Human Communication Research, 33, 119-142.
Francis, M.E. & Pennebaker, J.W. (1992). Putting stress into words: Writing about personal upheavals and health. American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, 280-287.
Frattaroli, J. (2006). Experimental disclosure and its moderators: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 823-865.
Frattaroli, J., Thomas, M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2011). Opening up in the classroom: Effects of expressive writing on graduate school entrance exam performance. Emotion, 11,
Frayne, A., & Wade, T.D. (2006). A comparison of written emotional expression and planning with respect to bulimic symptoms and associated psychopathology. European Eating Disorders Review, 14, 329-340.
Freyd, J.J., Klest, B., & Allard, C.B. (2005). Betrayal trauma: Relationship to physical health, psychological distress, and a written disclosure intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6, 83-104.
Frisina, P.G., Borod, J.C., & Lepore, S.J. (2004). A meta-analysis of the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health outcomes of clinical populations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 629-634.
Furnes, B., & Dysvik, E. (2010). A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1. Patient preference and adherence, 4, 425.
Gallagher, P., & MacLachlan, M. (2002). Evaluating a written emotional disclosure homework intervention for lower-limb amputees. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 83, 1464-1466.
Gallant, M. D., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2003). Effects of an emotional disclosure writing task on the physical and psychological functioning of children of alcoholics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 21, 55-66.
Gamber, A. M., Lane-Loney, S., & Levine, M. P. (2013). Effects and Linguistic Analysis of Written Traumatic Emotional Disclosure in an Eating-Disordered Population. The Permanente Journal, 17(1), 16.
Gellaitry, G., Peters, K., Bloomfield, D., & Horne, R. (2010). Narrowing the gap: The effects of an expressive writing intervention on perceptions of actual and ideal emotional support in women who have completed treatment for early stage breast cancer. Psycho‐Oncology, 19(1), 77-84.
Gidron, Y., Duncan, E., Lazar, A., Biderman, A., Tandeter, H., & Shvartzman, P. (2002). Effects of guided disclosure of stressful experiences on clinic visits and symptoms in frequent clinic attenders. Family Practice, 19, 161-166.
Gidron, Y., Gal, R., Freedman, S., Twiser, I., Lauden, A., Snir, Y., & Benjamin, J. (2001). Translating research findings to PTSD prevention: Results of a randomized-controlled pilot study, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 773-780.
Gidron, Y., Peri, T., Connolly, J. F., & Shalev, A. Y. (1996). Written disclosure in posttraumatic stress disorder: Is it beneficial for the patient? Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 184, 505- 507.
Gillam, T. (2010). The therapeutic value of writing. British Journal of Wellbeing• Vol, 1(6), 27.
Gillis, M.E., Lumley, M.A., Mosley-Williams, A., Leisen, J.C.C., & Roehrs, T. (in press). The health effects of at-home written emotional disclosure in fibromyalgia: A randomized trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.
Gortner, E., Rude, S., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2006). Benefits of expressive writing in lowering rumination and depressive symptoms. Behavior Therapy, 37, 292-303
Graybeal, A., Seagal, J. D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2002). The role of story-making in disclosure writing: The psychometrics of narrative. Psychology and Health, 17, 571-581.
Greenberg, M. A., & Stone, A. A. (1992). Emotional disclosure about traumas and its relation to health: Effects of previous disclosure and trauma severity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 75-84.
Greenberg, M. A., Stone, A. A., & Wortman, C. B. (1996). Health and psychological effects of emotional disclosure: A test of the inhibition-confrontation approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 588-602.
große Deters, F., & Mehl, M. R. (2012). Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment. Social Psychological and Personality Science.
Guinther, P. M., Segal, D. L., & Bogaards, J. A. (2003). Gender differences in emotional processing among bereaved older adults. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 8, 15-33.
Halpert, A., Rybin, D., & Doros, G. (2010). Expressive writing is a promising therapeutic modality for the management of IBS: A pilot study. The American journal of gastroenterology.
Hamilton-West, K.E., & Quine, L. (2007). Effects of written emotional disclosure on health outcomes in patients with ankylosin spondylitis. Psychology and Health, 22, 637-657.
Harber, K.D., & Wenberg, K.E. (2005). Emotional disclosure and closeness to offenders. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 734-746.
Harber, K.D., & Cohen, D. (2005). the emotional broadcaster theory of social sharing. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 382-400.
Harber, K.D., Einav-Cohen, M., & Lang, F. (in press). They heard a cry: Psycho-social resources moderate perception of others' distress. European Journal of Social Psychology.
Harris, A. H. S. (2006). Does expressive writing reduce health care utilization? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 243-252.
Harris, A. H. S., Thoresen, C. E., Humpheys, K., & Faul, J. (2005). Does Expressive Writing Affect Asthma?: A Randomized Trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 130-136.
Harvey, A.G. & Farrel, C. (2003). The efficacy of the Pennebaker-like writing intervention for poor sleepers. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1, 115-124.
Hemenover, S. H. (2003). The good, the bad, and the healthy: Impacts of emotional disclosure of trauma on resilient self-concept and psychological distress, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1236-1244.
Henry, E. A., Schlegel, R. J., Talley, A. E., Molix, L. A., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2010, November). The feasibility and effectiveness of expressive writing for rural and urban breast cancer survivors. In oncology nursing forum (Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 749-757). Oncology Nursing Society.
Hevey, D., Wilczkiewicz, E., & Horgan, J. H. (2012). Type D moderates the effects of expressive writing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following myocardial infarction (MI). The Irish Journal of Psychology, 33(2-3), 107-114.
Hijazi, A. M., Tavakoli, S., Slavin-Spenny, O. M., & Lumley, M. A. (2011). Targeting interventions: Moderators of the effects of expressive writing and assertiveness training on the adjustment of international university students.International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 33(2), 101-112.
Hirai, M., Skidmore, S. T., Clum, G. A., & Dolma, S. (2012). An Investigation of the Efficacy of Online Expressive Writing for Trauma-Related Psychological Distress in Hispanic Individuals. Behavior therapy.
Hockemeyer, J., Smyth, J., Anderson, C., & Stone, A. (1999). Is it safe to write? Evaluating the short-term distress produced by writing about emotionally traumatic experiences. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61 [Abstract]
Honos-Webb, L., Harrick, E.A., Stiles, W.B., & Park, C. (2000). Assimilation of traumatic experiences and physical-health outcomes: Cautions for the Pennebaker paradigm. Psychotherapy, 37, 307-314.
Horn, A.B., & Mehl, M.R. (2004). Expressives Schreiben als Copingtechnik: Ein Überblick über den Stand der Forschung. Verhaltenstherapie, 14, 274-283.
Horn, A.B., Possel, P., & Hautzinger, M. (2011, in press). Promoting adaptive emotion regulation and coping in adolescence: A school-based program. Journal of Health Psychology, http://hpq.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/08/13/1359105310372814.
Hoyt, M. A., Stanton, A. L., Bower, J. E., Thomas, K. S., Litwin, M. S., Breen, E. C., & Irwin, M. R. (2013). Inflammatory Biomarkers and Emotional Approach Coping in Men with Prostate Cancer. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
Hoyt, T., & Yeater, E. A. (2011). The Effects of Negative Emotion and Expressive Writing on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(6), 549-569.
Hsu, M. C., Schubiner, H., Stracks, J. S., & Clauw, D. J. (2010). Sustained pain reduction through affective self-awareness in fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(10), 1064-1070.
Imrie, S., & Troop, N.A. (2012). A pilot study on the effects and feasibility of compassion-focused expressive writing in Day Hospice patients. Palliative and Supportive Care, doi:10.1017/S1478951512000181
Jacobson, L. T., & Reid, R. (2012). Improving the writing performance of high school students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and writing difficulties. Exceptionality, 20(4), 218-234.
Jensen‐Johansen, M. B., Christensen, S., Valdimarsdottir, H., Zakowski, S., Jensen, A. B., Bovbjerg, D. H., & Zachariae, R. (2012). Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer‐related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors—results from a nationwide randomized clinical trial. Psycho‐Oncology.
Johnston, O., Startup, H., Lavender, A., Godfrey, E., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Therapeutic writing as an intervention for symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa: Effects and mechanism of change. International Journal of Eating Disorders,43(5), 405-419.
Joseph, L.M., & Greenberg, M.A. (2001). The effects of a career transition program on reemployment success in laid-off professionals. Consulting Psychology Journal, 53, 169-181.
Kalantari, M., Yule, W., Dyregrov, A., Neshatdoost, H., & Ahmadi, S. J. (2012). Efficacy of writing for recovery on traumatic grief symptoms of Afghani refugee bereaved adolescents: a randomized control trial. OMEGA--Journal of Death and Dying, 65(2), 139-150.
Kaptein, A. A., Lyons, A. C., Pearson, A. S., van der Geest, S., Haan, J., Meulenberg, F., & Smyth, J. M. (2012). Storying stories. Medical Education Development, 2(1), e7.
Kearns, M. C., Edwards, K. M., Calhoun, K. S., & Gidycz, C. A. (2010). Disclosure of sexual victimization: The effects of Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm on physical and psychological distress. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 11(2), 193-209.
Kelley J.E., Lumley M.A., Leisen J.C. (1997). Health effects of emotional disclosure in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Health Psychology, 16, 331-340.
Kellogg, R. T., Mertz, H. K., & Morgan, M. (2010). Do gains in working memory capacity explain the written self-disclosure effect?. Cognition and Emotion,24(1), 86-93.
Kelly, A. E., Klusas, J. A., von Weiss, R. T., & Kenny, C. (2001). What is it about revealing secrets that is beneficial? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 651-665.
Kelly, R. E., Wood, A. M., Shearman, K., Phillips, S., & Mansell, W. (2012). Encouraging acceptance of ambivalence using the expressive writing paradigm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,85(2), 220-228.
Kim, Y. (2008). Effects of expressive writing among bilinguals: Exploring psychological well-being and social behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 43-47.
King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 798-807.
King, L. A. & Miner, K. N. (2000). Writing about the perceived benefits of traumatic events: Implications for physical health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 220-230.
Kirk, B. A., Schutte, N. S., & Hine, D. W. (2011). The Effect of an Expressive‐Writing Intervention for Employees on Emotional Self‐Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, Affect, and Workplace Incivility. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(1), 179-195.
Klapow, J.C., Schmidt, S.M., Taylor, L.A., Roller, P., Li, Q., Calhoun, J.W., Wallander, J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2001). Symptom management in older primary care patients: Feasibility of an experimental, written self-disclosure protocol. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 905-911.
Klein, K., & Boals, A. (2001). Expressive writing can increase working memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 520-533.
Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Farrell, A. D., Allison, K. W., Meyer, A. L., Sullivan, T. N., & Greene, A. Y. (2011). A school-based expressive writing intervention for at-risk urban adolescents' aggressive behavior and emotional lability.Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 693-705.
Kloss, J.D., & Lisman, S.A. (2002). An exposure-based examination of the effects of written emotional disclosure. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 31-46.
Knowles, E. D., Wearing, J. R., & Campos, B. (2011). Culture and the health benefits of expressive writing. Social Psychological and Personality Science,2(4), 408-415.
Ko, H.-C., & Kuo, F.-Y. (in press). Can blogging enhance subjective well-being through self-disclosure? CyberPsychology & Behavior.
Koopman, C., Ismailji, T., Holmes, D., Classen, C.C., Palesh, O., & Wales, T. (2005). The effects of expressive writing on pain, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of intimate partner violence. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 211-221.
Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M. (2000). Writing projects: Lessening undergraduates' unique suicidal bereavement. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 30, 50-60.
Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M. (2002). Does writing about suicidal thoughts and feelings reduce them? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32, 428-440.
Kowalski, R. M., & Cantrell, C. C. (2002). Intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of complaints. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 26, 26-33.
Kraaij, V., van Emmerik, A., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M. J., Lo-Fo-Wong, D., van Empelen, P., ... & Maes, S. (2010). Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 80(2), 200-204.
Krantz, A.M. & Pennebaker, J.W. (2007). Expressive dance, writing, trauma, and health: When words have a body. In I.A. Serlin, J Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (Eds), Whole person healthcare Vol 3: The Arts and Health (pp 201-229). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Kroner-Herwig, B., Linkemann, A., & Morris, L. (2004). Selbstöffnung beim Schreiben über belastende Lebensereignisse: Ein Weg in die Gesundheit? Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 33, 183–190. [Reprinted in English: Morris, L., Linkemann, A. & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2005). Writing your way to health? The effects of disclosure in German students. In M. E. Abelian (Ed.) Focus on psychotherapy research (pps 219-239). Nova Science, New York].
Lange-Nielsen, I. I., Kolltveit, S., Thabet, A. A. M., Dyregrov, A., Pallesen, S., Johnsen, T. B., & Laberg, J. C. (2012). Short-term effects of a writing intervention among adolescents in Gaza. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 17(5), 403-422.
Lange, A, Ven, J-P. van de, Schrieken, B., & Emmelkamp, P. (2001). INTERAPY. Treatment of posttraumatic stress through the Internet: A controlled trial. Behavioral Research and Experimental Psychiatry, 32 , 73-90.
Lange, A., Rietdijk, D., Hudcovicova, M., Van de Ven, J-P., Schrieken, S. & Emmelkamp,. P.M.G. (2003). INTERAPY. A controlled randomized trial of the standardized treatment of posttraumatic stress through the Internet. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 901-909.
Lange, A., Schoutrop, M.J.A., Schrieken, B., & Ven, J-P. (2002). Interapy: a model for therapeutic writing through the internet. In: S.J.Lepore & .J.M. Smyth (Eds.), The writing cure: How expressive writing promotes health and emotional well being (chapter 12, p.215-238). Washington: APA.
Lange, A., Ven, J-P. van de, & Schrieken, B. (in press). Interapy, treatment of posttraumatic stress and PTSD through the internet: theory, practice and research findings. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy.
Langens, T.A., & Schuler, J. (2005). Written emotional expression and emotional well-being: The moderating role of fear of rejection. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 818-830.
Langens, T.A., & Schuler, J. (2007). Effoects os written emotional expression: The role of positive expectancies. Health Psychology, 26, 174-182.
Langer, S. L., Kelly, T. H., Storer, B. E., Hall, S. P., Lucas, H. G., & Syrjala, K. L. (2012). Expressive Talking Among Caregivers of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Survivors: Acceptability and Concurrent Subjective, Objective, and Physiologic Indicators of Emotion. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology,30(3), 294-315.
Largo-Marsh, L., & Spates, C. R. (2002). The effects of writing therapy in comparison to EMD/R on traumatic stress: The relationship between hypnotizability and client expectancy to outcome. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 33, 581-586.
Leach, M. M., Greer, T., & Gaughf, J. (2010). Linguistic analysis of interpersonal forgiveness: Process trajectories. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(2), 117-122.
Leake, R., Friend, R., & Wadhwa, N. (1999). Improving adjustment to chronic illness through strategic self-presentation: An experimental study on a renal dialysis unit. Health Psychology, 18, 54-62.
Lee, H. S., & Cohn, L. D. (2010). Assessing coping strategies by analysing expressive writing samples. Stress and Health, 26(3), 250-260.
Lengelle, R, & Meijers, F. (2009). Mystery to mastery: An exploration of what happens in the black box of writing and healing. Journal of Poetry Therapy, 22, 59-77.
Lengelle, R. & Meijers, F. (2014). Narrative Identity: writing the self in career learning. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 42, 52-72.
Lengelle, R., Meijers, F., Poell, R., & Post, M. (2013). The effects of creative, expressive, and reflective writing in career learning. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 419-427.
Lengelle, R., Meijers, F., Poell, R., & Post, M. (2014). Career Writing: creative, expressive, and reflective approaches to narrative identity formation in students in higher education. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85, 75-84.
Lepore, S. J. (1997). Expressive writing moderates the relation between intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1030-1037.
Lepore, S. J., & Greenberg, M. A. (2002). Mending broken hearts: Effects of expressive writing on mood, cognitive processing, social adjustment and health following a relationship breakup. Psychology and Health, 17, 547-560.
Lepore, S., & Smyth, J. (2002). The writing cure: How expressive writing promotes health and emotional well-being. American Psychological Association press: Washington, DC. [Edited book]
Lepore, S.J., Fernandez-Berrocal, P., Ragan, J., & Ramos, N. (2004). It’s not that bad: Social challenges to emotional disclosure enhance adjustment to stress. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 17, 341-361.
Lepore, S.J., Silver, R.C., Wortman, C.B., & Wayment, H.A. (1996). Social constraints, intrusive thoughts, and depressive symptoms among bereaved mothers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 271-282.
Lewis, R.J., Derlega, V.J., Clarke, E.G., Kuang, J.C., Jacobs, A.M., & McElligott, M.D. (2005). An expressive writing intervention to cope with lesbian-related stress: The moderating effects of openness about sexual orientation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 149-157.
Lichtenthal, W. G., & Cruess, D. G. (2010). Effects of directed written disclosure on grief and distress symptoms among bereaved individuals. Death Studies, 34(6), 475-499.
Lichtenthal, W. G., & Neimeyer, R. A. (2012). Directed Journaling to Facilitate Meaning-Making. Techniques in Grief Therapy, 165.
Littrell, J. (1998). Is the reexperience of painful emotion therapeutic? Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 71-102.
Lorenz, T. A., Pulverman, C. S., & Meston, C. M. (2012). Sudden Gains During Patient-Directed Expressive Writing Treatment Predicts Depression Reduction in Women with History of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1-7.
Low, C. A., Stanton, A. L., Bower, J. E., & Gyllenhammer, L. (2010). A randomized controlled trial of emotionally expressive writing for women with metastatic breast cancer. Health psychology: official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 29(4), 460.
Low, C. A., Stanton, A.L., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2006). Expressive disclosure and benefit finding among breast cancer patients: Mechanisms for positive health effects. Health Psychology, 25, 181-189.
Lu, Q., & Stanton, A. L. (2010). How benefits of expressive writing vary as a function of writing instructions, ethnicity and ambivalence over emotional expression. Psychology and Health, 25(6), 669-684.
Lu, Q., Zheng, D., Young, L., Kagawa-Singer, M., & Loh, A. (2012). A Pilot Study of Expressive Writing Intervention Among Chinese-Speaking Breast Cancer Survivors. Health Psychology, 31(5), 548.
Lumley, M. A. (2004). Alexithymia, emotional disclosure, and health: A program of research. Journal of Personality, 72, 1271-1300.
Lumley, M. A. & Provenzano, K. M. (2003). Stress management through emotional disclosure improves academic performance among college students with physical symptoms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 641-649.
Lumley, M. A., Leisen, J. C., Partridge, R. T., Meyer, T. M., Radcliffe, A. M., Macklem, D. J., ... & Granda, J. L. (2011). Does emotional disclosure about stress improve health in rheumatoid arthritis? Randomized, controlled trials of written and spoken disclosure. Pain, 152(4), 866-877.
Lumley, M., Leegstra, S., Provenzano, K., & Warren, V. (1999). The health effects of writing about emotional stress on physically symptomatic young adults.(abstract) Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 84-130.
Lumley, M. A., Tojek, T. M., & Macklem, D. J. (2002). Effects of written emotional disclosure among repressive and alexithymic people. In, S. J. Lepore, and J. M. Smyth (Eds.), The writing cure: How expressive writing promotes health and emotional well-being, (pp.75-95). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Lutgendorf, S.K., Antoni, M.H. (1999). Emotional and cognitive processing in a trauma disclosure paradigm. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23, 423-440.
Lutgendorf, S.K., Antoni, M.H., Kumar, M., & Schneiderman, N. (1994). Changes in coping strategies predict EBV antibody titers following a stressor disclosure induction. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 63-78.
Lyubomisky, S., Sousa, L., & Dickerhoof, R. (2006). The costs and benefits of writing, talking, and thinking about life’s triumphs and defeats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 692-708.
Mackenzie, C.S., Wiprzycka, U.J., Hasher, L., & Goldstein, D. (2007). Does expressive writing reduce stress and improve health for family caregivers of older adults? The Gerontologist, 47, 296-306.
MacReady, D. E., Cheung, R. M., Kelly, A. E., & Wang, L. (2011). Can Public Versus Private Disclosure Cause Greater Psychological Symptom Reduction?.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(10), 1015-1042.
Maestas, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2012). The benefits of expressive writing on autobiographical memory specificity: A randomized controlled trial. Cognitive therapy and research, 36(3), 234-246.
Manier, D. & Olivares, A. (2005). Who benefits from expressive writing? Moderator variables affecting outcomes of emotional disclosure interventions. Counseling and Clinical Psychology Journal, 2, 15-28.
Mann, T. (2001). Effects of future writing and optimism on health behaviors in HIV-infected women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 26-33.
Manzoni, G. M., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E. (2011). The WRITTEN-HEART study (expressive writing for heart healing): rationale and design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of expressive writing in coronary patients referred to residential cardiac rehabilitation. Population, 8, 9.
Marlo H., Wagner M.K. (1999). Expression of negative and positive events through writing: implications for psychotherapy and health. Psychology and Health, 14, 193-215.
Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Cerar, N. I., Allen-Bronaugh, D., Thompson, C., Guckert, M., ... & Cuenca-Sanchez, Y. (2012). Fluent Persuasive Writing With Counterarguments for Students With Emotional Disturbance. The Journal of Special Education.
Matthiesen, S., Klonoff‐Cohen, H., Zachariae, R., Jensen‐Johansen, M. B., Nielsen, B. K., Frederiksen, Y., ... & Ingerslev, H. J. (2012). The effect of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on stress in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment: A randomized controlled pilot study. British journal of health psychology, 17(2), 362-378.
McGuire, K.M., Greenberg, M.A., & Gevirtz, R. (2005). Autonomic effects of expressive writing in individuals with elevated blood pressure. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 197-209.
Meijers, F. & Lengelle, R. (2012). Narratives at work: the development of a career identity. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 40, 157-177.
Mendes, W. B., Reis, H., Seery, M.D., & Blascovich, J. (2003). Cardiovascular correlates of emotional expression and suppression: Do content and gender context matter? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 771-792.
Mendolia, M., & Kleck, R.E. (1993). Effects of talking about a stressful event on arousal: Does what we talk about make a difference? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 283-292.
Monin, J. K., Schulz, R., Lemay Jr, E. P., & Cook, T. B. (2012). Linguistic markers of emotion regulation and cardiovascular reactivity among older caregiving spouses. Psychology and aging, 27(4), 903.
Morisano, D., Hirsh, J. B., Peterson, J. B., Shore, B., & Pihl, R. O. (2010). Personal goal setting, reflection, and elaboration improves academic performance in university students. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 255-264.
Morrow, J. A., Clayman, S., & McDonagh, B. (2012). In Their Own Voices Trauma Survivors’ Experiences in Overcoming Childhood Trauma. SAGE Open, 2(1).
Mosher, C. E., & DuHamel, K. N. (2012). An examination of distress, sleep, and fatigue in metastatic breast cancer patients. Psycho‐Oncology, 21(1), 100-107.
Mosher, C. E., DuHamel, K. N., Lam, J., Dickler, M., Li, Y., Massie, M. J., & Norton, L. (2012). Randomised trial of expressive writing for distressed metastatic breast cancer patients. Psychology & Health, 27(1), 88-100.
Murray, E. J., & Segal, D. L. (1994). Emotional processing in vocal and written expression of feelings about traumatic experiences. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 391-405.
Murray, E. J., Lamnin, A. D., & Carver, C. S. (1989). Emotional expression in written essays and psychotherapy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 8, 414-429.
Nazarian, D., & Smyth, J. M. (2010). Context moderates the effects of an expressive writing intervention: a randomized two-study replication and extension. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 29(8), 903-929.
Nazarian, D., & Smyth, J. M. (2013). An experimental test of instructional manipulations in expressive writing interventions: Examining processes of change. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32(1), 71-96.
Nicholls, S. (2009). Beyond expressive writing: Evolving models of developmental creative writing. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 171-180.
Njus, D. M., Nitschke, W., & Bryant, F. B. (1996). Positive affect, negative affect, and the moderating effect of writing on sIgA antibody levels. Psychology and Health, 12, 135-148.
Norman, S.A., Lumley, M.A., Dooley, J.A., & Diamond, M.P. (2004). For whom does it work? Moderators of the effects of written emotional disclosure in women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 174-183.
North, R. J., Pai, A. V., Hixon, J. G., & Holahan, C. J. (2011). Finding happiness in negative emotions: An experimental test of a novel expressive writing paradigm. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(3), 192-203.
O'Connor, D. B., Hurling, R., Hendrickx, H., Osborne, G., Hall, J., Walklet, E., ... & Wood, H. (2011). Effects of written emotional disclosure on implicit self‐esteem and body image. British journal of health psychology, 16(3), 488-501.
O'Connor, D.B., Hurling, R., Hendrickx, H., Osborne, G., Hall, J., Walklet, E., Whaley, A., & Wood, H. (2011). Effects of written emotional disclosure on implicit self-esteem and body image. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 488-501
O’Connor, D. B., Walker, S., Hendrickx, H., Talbot, D., & Schaefer, A. (2012). Stress-related thinking predicts the cortisol awakening response and somatic symptoms in healthy adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology.
O’Connor, D.B., & Ashley, L. (2008). Are alexithymia and emotional characteristics of disclosure associated with blood pressure reactivity and psychological distress following written emotional disclosure? British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 495-512.
Opre, A., Coman, A., Kallay, E., Rotaru, D., & Manier, D. (2005). Reducing distress in college students through expressive writing: A pilot study on a Romanian sample. Cogniie, Creier, & Comportament [Cognition, Brain, & Behavior], 10, 53-64.
Owen, J. E., Hanson, E. R., Preddy, D. A., & Bantum, E. O. C. (2011). Linguistically-tailored video feedback increases total and positive emotional expression in a structured writing task. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 874-882.
Pachankis, J. E., & Goldfried, M. R. (2010). Expressive writing for gay-related stress: Psychosocial benefits and mechanisms underlying improvement.Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 78(1), 98.
Paez, D., Velasco, C., & Gonzalez, J. L. (1999). Expressive writing and the role of alexithymia as a dispositional deficit in self-disclosure and psychological health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 630-641.
Palmer, G., & Braud, W. (2002). Exceptional human experiences, disclosure, and a more inclusive view of physical, psychological, and spiritual well-being. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 34, 29-61.
Pantchenko, T., Lawson, M., & Joyce, M. R. (2003). Verbal and non-verbal disclosure of recalled and negative experiences: Relation to well-being. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 76, 251-265.
Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: an integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological bulletin, 136(2), 257.
Park, C. L. & Blumberg, C. J. (2002). Disclosing trauma through writing: Testing the meaning-making hypothesis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 597-616.
Park, E. Y., & Yi, M. (2012). Development and effectiveness of expressive writing program for women with breast cancer in Korea. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 42(2), 269-279.
Patterson, C.L., & Singer, J.A. (2007-2008). Exploring the role of expectancies in the mental and physical health outcomes of written self-disclosure. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 27, 99-115.
Pauley, P. M., Morman, M. T., & Floyd, K. (2011). Expressive writing improves subjective health among testicular cancer survivors: A pilot study. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 199-219.
Pennebaker, J.W., Barger, S.D., & Tiebout, J. (1989). Disclosure of traumas and health among Holocaust survivors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 577-589.
Pennebaker, J.W., & Beall, S.K. (1986). Confronting a traumatic event: Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 274-281.
Pennebaker, J. W., & Chung, C. K. (2011). Expressive writing: Connections to physical and mental health. Oxford Handbook of Health Psychology, 417-437.
Pennebaker, J.W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L.K. (1990). Accelerating the coping process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 528-537.
Pennebaker, J.W., & Francis, M.E. (1996). Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 601-626.
Pennebaker, J.W., Hughes, C.F. & O'Heeron, R.C. (1987). The psychophysiology of confession: Linking inhibitory and psychosomatic processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 781-793.
Pennebaker, J.W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J., & Glaser, R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 239-245.
Pennebaker, J.W., Mayne, T.J., & Francis, M.E. (1997). Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 863-871.
Petrie, K.J., Booth, R., Pennebaker, J.W., Davison, K.P., & Thomas, M. (1995). Disclosure of trauma and immune response to Hepatitis B vaccination program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 787-792.
Petrie, K.J., Fontanilla, I., Thomas, M.G., Booth, R.J., & Pennebaker. J.W. (2004). Effect of written emotional expression on immune function in patients with HIV infection: A randomized trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 272-275.
Petrie, K.P., Booth, R.J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1998). The immunological effects of thought suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1264-1272.
Pini, S., Harley, C., O'Connor, D., & Velikova, G. (2011). Evaluation of expressive writing as an intervention for patients following a mastectomy for breast cancer–a feasibility study. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 1(Suppl 1), A24-A24.
Pizarro, J. (2004). The efficacy of art and writing therapy: Increasing positive mental health outcomes and participant retention after exposure to traumatic experience. Art Therapy, 21, 5-12.
Poon, A., & Danoff‐Burg, S. (2011). Mindfulness as a moderator in expressive writing. Journal of clinical psychology, 67(9), 881-895.
Possemato, K., Ouimette, P., & Geller, P. A. (2010). Internet-based expressive writing for kidney transplant recipients: Effects on posttraumatic stress and quality of life. Traumatology, 16(1), 49-54.
Radcliffe, A. M., Lumley, M. A., Kendall, J., Stevenson, J. K., & Beltran, J. (2010). Written emotional disclosure: Testing whether social disclosure matters. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 26(3), 362.
Radcliffe, A. M., Stevenson, J. K., Lumley, M. A., D'Souza, P. J., & Kraft, C. A. (2010). Does Written Emotional Disclosure about Stress Improve College Students' Academic Performance? Results from Three Randomized, Controlled Studies. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice,12(4), 407-428.
Ramirez, G., & Beilock, S. L. (2011). Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom. Science, 331(6014), 211-213.
Range, L. M., & Jenkins, S. R. (2010). Who benefits from Pennebaker’s expressive writing paradigm? Research recommendations from three gender theories. Sex roles, 63(3-4), 149-164.
Range, L.M., Kovac, S. H., & Marion, M. S. (2000). Does writing about the bereavement lessen grief following sudden, unintentional death? Death Studies, 24, 115-134.
Re, A. M., & Cornoldi, C. (2010). ADHD expressive writing difficulties of ADHD children: when good declarative knowledge is not sufficient. European journal of psychology of education, 25(3), 315-323.
Ressler, P. K., Bradshaw, Y. S., Gualtieri, L., & Chui, K. K. H. (2012). Communicating the experience of chronic pain and illness through blogging.Journal of medical Internet research, 14(5).
Reynolds, M., Brewin, C. R., & Saxton, M. (2000). Emotional disclosure in school children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 41, 151-159.
Richards, J.M., Beal, W.E., Seagal, J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2000). The effects of disclosure of traumatic events on illness behavior among psychiatric prison inmates. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 156-160.
Rickwood, D., & Bradford, S. (2012). The role of self-help in the treatment of mild anxiety disorders in young people: an evidence-based review. Psychology research and behavior management, 5, 25.
Rimé, B. (1995). Mental rumination, social sharing, and the recovery from emotional exposure. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 271-291). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Rivkin, I.D., Gustafson, J., Weingarten, I., & Chin, D. (2006). The effects of expressive writing on adjustment to HIV. AIDS and Behavior, 10, 13-26.
Rooke, S.E., & Malouff, J.M. (in press). The efficacy of symbolic modeling and vicarious reinforcement in increasing coping-method adherence. Behavior Therapy.
Rye, M. S., Fleri, A. M., Moore, C. D., Worthington Jr, E. L., Wade, N. G., Sandage, S. J., & Cook, K. M. (2012). Evaluation of an Intervention Designed to Help Divorced Parents Forgive Their Ex-Spouse. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 53(3), 231-245.
Sandgren, A. K., & McCaul, K. D. (2003). Short-term effects of telephone therapy for breast cancer patients. Health Psychology, 22, 310-315.
Sbarra, D. A., Boals, A., Mason, A. E., Larson, G. M., & Mehl, M. R. (2013). Expressive Writing Can Impede Emotional Recovery Following Marital Separation. Clinical Psychological Science.
Schilte, A.F., Portegijs, P.J.M., Blankenstein, A.H., van der Horst, H.E., Latour, M.B.F., van Eijk, J.T.M., & Knottnerus, J.A. (2001). Randomised controlled trial of disclosure of emotionally important events in somatisation in primary care. British Medical Journal, 323, 86.
Schoutrop, M. J. A., Lange, A., Brosschot, J., & Everaerd, W. (1997). Overcoming traumatic events by means of writing assignments. In A. Vingerhoets, F. van Bussel, & J. Boelhouwer (Eds.), The (Non)expression of emotions in health and disease (pp 279-289). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.
Schoutrop, M.J.A., Lange, A., Hanewald, G., Davidovich, U., & Salomon, H. (2002). Structured writing and processing major stressful events: A controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 71, 141-157.
Schoutroup, M.J.A., Brosschot, J.F, & Lange, A. (1999). Writing assignments after trauma: decreased re-experiencing and within/across session physiological habituation [abstract]. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 95.
Schut, H. A. W., Stroebe, M. S., & van den Bout, J. (1997). Intervention for the bereaved: Gender differences in the efficacy of two counselling programmes. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 63-72.
Schutte, N. S., Searle, T., Meade, S., & Dark, N. A. (2012). The effect of meaningfulness and integrative processing in expressive writing on positive and negative affect and life satisfaction. Cognition & Emotion, 26(1), 144-152.
Schwartz, L., & Drotar, D. (2004). Effects of written emotional disclosure on caregivers of children and adolescents with chronic illness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 105-118.
Scott, V. B., Robare, R. D., Raines, D. B., Konwinski, S. J. M., Chanin, J. A., & Tolley, R. S. (2003). Emotive writing moderates the relationship between mood awareness and athletic performance in collegiate tennis players. North American Journal of Psychology, 5, 311-324
Segal, D. L. & Murray, E. J. (1994). Emotional processing in cognitive therapy and vocal expression of feeling. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13, 189-206.
Segal, D. L., & Murray, E. J. (2001). Comparison of distance emotional expression with psychotherapy. In L. LAbate (Ed.), Distance writing and computer-assisted techniques in psychiatry and mental health (pp. 61-75). Greenwich, CT: Ablex.
Segal, D. L., Bogaards, J. A., Becker, L. A., & Chatman, C. (1999). Effects of emotional expression on adjustment to spousal loss among older adults. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 5, 297-310.
Segal, D. L., Chatman, C., Bogaards, J. A., & Becker, L. A. (2001). One year follow-up of an emotional expression intervention for bereaved older adults. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 7, 465-472.
Segal, D.L., Tucker, H.C., & Coolidge, F.L. (2009). A comparison of positive versus negative emotional expression in a written disclosure study among distressed students. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 18, 367-381.
Seih, Y. T., Chung, C. K., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). Experimental manipulations of perspective taking and perspective switching in expressive writing. Cognition & Emotion, 25(5), 926-938.
Seih, Y. T., Lin, Y. C., Huang, C. L., Peng, C. W., & Huang, S. P. (2008). The benefits of psychological displacement in diary writing when using different pronouns. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 39-41.
Sharifabad, M. A., Hurewitz, A., Spiegler, P., Bernstein, M., Feuerman, M., & Smyth, J. M. (2010). Written disclosure therapy for patients with chronic lung disease undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 30(5), 340-345.
Sharma-Patel, K., Brown, E. J., & Chaplin, W. F. (2012). Emotional and Cognitive Processing in Sexual Assault Survivors' Narratives. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21(2), 149-170.
Sheese, B. E., Brown, E. L., & Graziano, W. G. (2004). Emotional expression in cyberspace: Searching for moderators of the Pennebaker disclosure effect via email. Health Psychology, 23, 457-464.
Sheffield, D., Duncan, E., Thomson, K., Johal, S. S. (2002). Written emotional expression and well-being: Result from a home-based study. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 2001. Retrieved May 21, 2004, from http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2002-1/sheffield.htm
Shim, M., Cappella, J. N., & Han, J. Y. (2011). How does insightful and emotional disclosure bring potential health benefits? Study based on online support groups for women with breast cancer. Journal of Communication, 61(3), 432-454.
Shnabel, N., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Cook, J. E., Garcia, J., & Cohen, G. L. (2013). Demystifying Values-Affirmation Interventions Writing About Social Belonging Is a Key to Buffering Against Identity Threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Sklar, E. R., & Carty, J. N. (2012). Emotional disclosure interventions for chronic pain: from the laboratory to the clinic. Translational behavioral medicine, 2(1), 73-81.
Slatcher, R. B., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2006). How do I love thee? Let me count the words: The social effects of expressive writing. Psychological Science, 17, 660-664.
Slatcher, R. B., Robles, T. F., Repetti, R. L., & Fellows, M. D. (2010). Momentary work worries, marital disclosure, and salivary cortisol among parents of young children. Psychosomatic medicine, 72(9), 887-896.
Slavin‐Spenny, O. M., Cohen, J. L., Oberleitner, L. M., & Lumley, M. A. (2011). The effects of different methods of emotional disclosure: differentiating post‐traumatic growth from stress symptoms. Journal of clinical psychology, 67(10), 993-1007.
Sloan, D. M., & Epstein, E. M. (2005). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia predicts written disclosure outcome. Psychophysiology, 42, 611-615.
Sloan, D. M., & Marx, B. P. (2004). A closer examination of the structured written disclosure procedure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 165-175.
Sloan, D. M., & Marx, B. P. (2004). Taking pen to hand: Evaluating theories underlying the written disclosure paradigm. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 121-137.
Sloan, D. M., Marx, B. P., Epstein, E. M., & Dobbs, J. L. (2008). Expressive writing buffers against maladaptive rumination. Emotion, 8, 302-306.
Sloan, D. M., Marx, B.P., & Epstein, E.M. (2005). Further examination of the exposure model underlying the efficacy of written emotional disclosure. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 549-554.
Sloan, D.M., Marx, B.P., Epstein, E.M., & Lexington, J. (in press). Does altering the writing instructions influence outcome associated with written disclosure? Behavior Therapy.
Small, R., Lumley, J., Donohue, L., Potter, A., & Waldenstrom, U. (2000). Randomised controlled trial of midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 321, 1043-1047.
Smith, H.E., Jones, C.J., Theasom, A., Horne, R., Bowskill, R., Nakins, M., & Frew, A.J. (2009). Writing about emotional experiences reduces B-agonist use in patients with asthma – 3-month follow up of a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 123, S80. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.12.280
Smyth, J. M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2008). Exploring the boundary conditions of expressive writing: In search of the right recipe. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 1-7.
Smyth, J. M., Hockemeyer, J. R., & Tulloch, H. (2008). Expressive writing and post-traumatic stress disorder: Effects on trauma symptoms, mood states, and cortisol reactivity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 85-93.
Smyth, J. M., Hockemeyer, J., Anderson, C., Strandberg, K., Koch, M., O’Neill, H. K., et al. (2002). Structured writing about a natural disaster buffers the effect of intrusive thoughts on negative affect and physical symptoms. The Australasian Journal of Disaster, 2002. Retrieved May 21, 2004 from http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2002-1/smyth.htm
Smyth, J., Anderson, C., Hockemeyer, J., & Stone, A. (in press). Emotional non-expression, cognitive avoidance, and response to writing about traumatic events. Psychology & Health.
Smyth, J., True, N., & Souto, J. (2001). Effects of writing about traumatic experiences: The necessity for narrative structure. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 20, 161-172.
Smyth, J.M. (1998). Written emotional expression: Effect sizes, outcome types, and moderating variables. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 66, 174-184.
Smyth, J.M., Stone, A.A., Hurewitz, A., & Kaell, A. (1999). Effects of writing about stressful experiences on symptom reduction in patients with asthma or rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 1304-1309.
Solano, L., Donati, V., Pecci, F., Persichetti, S., & Colaci, A. (2003). Post-operative course after papilloma resection: effects of written disclosure of the experience in subjects with different alexithymia levels. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 477-484.
Soliday, E., Garafolo, J. P., & Rogers, D. (2004). Expressive writing intervention for adolescents’ somatic symptoms and mood. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 792-801.
Spera, S.P., Buhrfeind, E.D., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1994). Expressive writing and coping with job loss. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 722-733.
Stanton, A. L., & Low, C. A. (2012). Expressing Emotions in Stressful Contexts Benefits, Moderators, and Mechanisms. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 124-128.
Stanton, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., Cameron, C. L., Bishop, M., Collins, C. A., Kirk, S. B., Sworowski, L. A., & Twillman, R. (2000). Emotionally expressive coping predicts psychological and physical adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 875-882.
Stanton, A.L., Danoff-Burg, S., Sworowski, L.A., Collins, C.A., Branstetter, A.D., Rodriguez-Hanley, A., Kirk, S.B., & Austenfeld, J.L. (2002). Randomized, controlled trial of written emotional expression and benefit finding in breast cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 4160-4168.
Stice, E., Rohde, P., Gau, J., & Shaw, H. (2012). Effect of a Dissonance-Based Prevention Program on Risk for Eating Disorder Onset in the Context of Eating Disorder Risk Factors. Prevention Science, 13(2), 129-139.
Stickney, L. T. (2010). Who benefits from Pennebaker’s expressive writing? More research recommendations: a commentary on range and Jenkins. Sex roles, 63(3-4), 165-172.
Stone, A., Smyth, J., Kaell, A., & Hurewitz, A. (2000). Structured writing about stressful events: Exploring potential psychological mediators of positive health effects. Health Psychology, 19, 619-624.
Stroebe, M., Stroebe, W., Zech, E., & Schut, H. (2002). Does disclosure of emotions facilitate recovery from bereavement? Evidence from two prospective studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 169-178.
Swanbon, T., Boyce, L., & Greenberg, M. A. (2008). Expressive writing reduces avoidance and somatic complaints in a community sample with constraints on expression. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 53-56.
Taylor, L.A., Wallander, J.L., & Anderson, D. (2003). Improving health care utilization, improving chronic disease utilization, health status, and adjustment in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis: A preliminary report. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 10, 9-16.
Toepfer, S. M., Cichy, K., & Peters, P. (2012). Letters of gratitude: further evidence for author benefits. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(1), 187-201.
Trees, A. R., Kellas, J. K., & Roche, M. (2010). Family narratives. Family communication about genetics: Theory and practice, 68-86.
Troop, N.A., Chilcot, J., Hutchings, L., & Varnaite, G. (2012). Expressive writing, self-criticism, and self-assurance. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, DOI:10.1111/j.2044-8341.2012.02065.x.
Ullman, S. E. (2011). Is Disclosure of Sexual Traumas Helpful? Comparing Experimental Laboratory Versus Field Study Results. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 20(2), 148-162.
Ullrich, P.A. & Lutgendorf, S.L. (2002). Journaling about stressful events: Effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 244-250.
Unsworth, K. L., Rogelberg, S. G., & Bonilla, D. (2010). Emotional expressive writing to alleviate euthanasia-related stress. The Canadian Veterinary Journal,51(7), 775.
van der Houwen, K., Schut, H., van den Bout, J., Stroebe, M., & Stroebe, W. (2010). The efficacy of a brief internet-based self-help intervention for the bereaved. Behaviour research and therapy, 48(5), 359-367.
Van Dijk, J. A., Schoutrop, M. J. A., Spinhoven, P. (2003). Testimony therapy: Treatment method for traumatized victims of organized violence. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 57, 361-373.
van Emmerik, A. A. P., K., Kamphuis, J. H., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2008). Treating acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive behavioral therapy or structured writing therapy: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 93–100.
Viel‐Ruma, K., Houchins, D. E., Jolivette, K., Fredrick, L. D., & Gama, R. (2010). Direct instruction in written expression: The effects on English speakers and English language learners with disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(2), 97-108.
Vrielynck, N., Philippot, P., & Rime, B. (2010). Level of processing modulates benefits of writing about stressful events: Comparing generic and specific recall. Cognition & Emotion, 24, 1117-1132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 02699930903172161.
Wagner, L. J., Hilker, K. A., Hepworth, J. T., & Wallston, K. A. (2010). Cognitive adaptability as a moderator of expressive writing effects in an HIV sample. AIDS and Behavior, 14(2), 410-420.
Walker, B. L., Nail, L. M., & Croyle, R. T. (1999). Does emotional expression make a difference in reactions to breast cancer? Oncology Nursing Forum, 26, 1025-1032.
Wallander, J. L., Madan-Swain, A., Klapow, J., & Saeed, S. (2011). A randomised controlled trial of written self-disclosure for functional recurrent abdominal pain in youth. Psychology and Health, 26(4), 433-447.
Warner, L.J., Lumley, M.A., Casey, R.J., Pierantoni, W., Salazar, R., Zoratti, E.M., Enberg, R., & Simon, M.R. (2006). Health effects of written emotional disclosure in adolescents with asthma: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 557-568.
Waters, T. E., Shallcross, J. F., & Fivush, R. (2012). The many facets of meaning making: Comparing multiple measures of meaning making and their relations to psychological distress. Memory, (ahead-of-print), 1-14.
Weine, S. M., Kulenovic, A. D., Pavkovic, I., Gibbons, R. (1998). Testimony psychotherapy in Bosnian refugees: A pilot study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1720-1726.
Wetherell, M.A., Byrne-Davis, L., Dieppe, P., et al. (2005). Effects of emotional disclosure on psychological and physiological outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: An exploratory home-based study. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 277-285.
Williams, C., & Pilonieta, P. (2012). Using Interactive Writing Instruction with Kindergarten and First-Grade English Language Learners. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(3), 145-150.
Willmott, L., Harris, P., Gellaitry, G., Cooper, V., & HOME, R. (2011). The effects of expressive writing following first myocardial infarction: A randomized controlled trial. Health psychology, 30(5), 642-650.
Wolbers, K. A., Dostal, H. M., & Bowers, L. M. (2012). “I Was Born Full Deaf.” Written Language Outcomes After 1 Year of Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction. Journal of deaf studies and deaf education, 17(1), 19-38.
Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., & Telch, M. J. (2010). Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: A randomized controlled trial.Behaviour research and therapy, 48(9), 840-850.
Wong, Y. J., & Rochlen, A. B. (2009). Potential benefits of expressive writing for male college students with varying degrees of restrictive emotionality. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 10, 149-159.
Wright, J.K. (2003) Five Women talk about work-related brief therapy and therapeutic writing. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 3, 204-209.
Wright, J.K. (2005) Writing therapy in brief workplace counselling, Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 5, 111-119.
Yogo, M., & Fujihara, S. (2008). Working memory capacity can be improved by expressive writing: A randomized experiment in a Japanese sample. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 77-80.
Zakowski, S. G., Herzer, M., Barrett, S. D., Milligan, J. G., & Beckman, N. (2011). Who benefits from emotional expression? An examination of personality differences among gynaecological cancer patients participating in a randomized controlled emotional disclosure intervention trial. British Journal of Psychology,102(3), 355-372.
Zakowski, S. G., Ramati, A., Morton, C., Johnson, P., & Flanigan, R. (2004). Written emotional disclosure buffers the effects of social constraints on distress in cancer patients. Health Psychology, 23, 555-563.
Zuuren, F.J. van, Schoutrop, M.J.A., Lange, A., Louis, C.M., & Slegers, J.E.M. (1999). Effective and ineffective ways of writing about traumatic experiences: a qualitative study. Psychotherapy Research, 9, 363 - 380.