Reference List of Writing/Disclosure Studies


Alpers, G. W., Winzelberg, A. J., Classen, C., Dev, P., Koopman, C., Roberts, H., et al. (2005). Evaluation of computerized text anaylsis in an Internet breast cancer support group. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 343-358.


Ames, S. C., Patten, C. A., Offord, K. P., Pennebaker, J. W., Croghan, I. T., Tri, D. M., Stevens, S. R., & Hurt, R. D. (2005).  Expressive writing intervention for young adult cigarette smokers.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 1555-1570


Ames, S.C., Patten, C.A., Werch, C.E., Echols, J.D., Schroeder, D.R., Stevens, S.R., Pennebaker, J.W., & Hurt, R.D. (in press). Expressive writing as a nicotine dependence treatment adjunct for young adult smokers.  Nicotine & Tobacco Research.


Arigo, D., & Smyth, J. M. (2012). The benefits of expressive writing on sleep difficulty and appearance concerns for college women. Psychology & Health,27(2), 210-226.


Ashley, L., O'Connor, D. B., & Jones, F. (2011). Effects of emotional disclosure in caregivers: Moderating role of alexithymia. Stress and Health,27(5), 376-387.


Ashley, L., O’Connor, D. B., & Jones, F. (2013). A randomized trial of written emotional disclosure interventions in school teachers: Controlling for positive expectancies and effects on health and job satisfaction. Psychology, health & medicine, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.


Averill, A. J., Kasarskis, E. J., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2013). Expressive disclosure to improve well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A randomised, controlled trial. Psychology & health, (ahead-of-print), 1-13.


Baddeley, J. L., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). A postdeployment expressive writing intervention for military couples: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of traumatic stress, 24(5), 581-585.


Baikie, K. A. (2008). Who does expressive writing work for? Examination of alexithymia, splitting, and repressive coping style as moderators of the expressive writing paradigm. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 61-66.


Baikie, K. A., Geerligs, L., & Wilhelm, K. (2012). Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: An online randomized controlled trial. Journal of affective disorders, 136(3), 310-319.


Baikie, K.A., & Wilhelm, K.  (2005). Emotional and physical health benefits of expressive writing.  Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 11, 338-346.


Baker, J. R., & Moore, S. M. (2008). Blogging as a social tool: a psychological examination of the effects of blogging. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 747-74


Barry, L. M., & Singer, G. H. S. (2001). Reducing maternal psychological distress after the NICU experience through journal writing. Journal of Early Intervention, 24, 287-297.


Batten, S. V., Follette, V. M., & Palm, K. M. (2002). Physical and psychological effects of written disclosure among sexual abuse survivors. Behavior Therapy, 33, 107-122.


Baum, E. S., & Rude, S. S. (2013). Acceptance-Enhanced Expressive Writing Prevents Symptoms in Participants with Low Initial Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(1), 35-42.


Beckwith, K. M., Greenberg, M.A., & Gevirtz, R. (2005).  Autonomic effects of expressive writing in individuals with elevated blood pressure.  Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 197-209.


Bernard, M., Jackson, C., & Jones, C. (2006).  Written emotional disclosure following first-episode psychosis: Effects on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.  British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 403-415.


Boals, A. (2012). The use of meaning making in expressive writing: When meaning is beneficial. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(4), 393-409.


Boals, A., Banks, J. B., & Hayslip Jr, B. (2012). A self-administered, mild form of exposure therapy for older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 16(2), 154-161.


Bolton, G., Howlett, S., Lago, C., & Wright, J.K. (Eds.) (2004).  Writing cures: An introductory handbook of writing in counselling and therapy.New York: Brunner-Routledge.


Bond, M., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2012). Automated computer-based feedback in expressive writing. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 1014-1018.


Booth, R. J., & Davison, K. P. (2003). Relating to our worlds in a psychobiological context: The impact of disclosure on self-generation and immunity. In J. Wilce (Ed.), Social and Cultural Lives of Immune Systems (pp. 36-48). London and New York: Routledge.


Booth, R.J., Petrie, K.J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (1997). Changes in circulating lymphocyte numbers following emotional disclosure: Evidence of buffering? Stress Medicine, 13, 23-29.


Bornstein, R. F. (2010). Gender schemas, gender roles, and expressive writing: Toward a process-focused model. Sex roles, 63(3-4), 173-177.


Bower, J. E., Kemeny, M. E., Taylor, S. E., & Fahey, J. L. (2003). Finding meaning and its association with natural killer cell cytotoxicity among participants in a bereavement-related disclosure intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 146-155.


Brewin, C.R. & Lennard, H. (1999). Effects of mode of writing on emotional narratives. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 355-361.


Broderick, J. E., Junghaenel, D. U., & Schwartz, J. E. (2005). Written emotional expression produces health benefits in fibromyalgia patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 326-334.


Broderick, J. E., Stone, A. A., Smyth, J. M., Kaell, A. T. (2004). The feasibility and effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention for rheumatoid arthritis via home-based videotaped instructions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 50-59.


Brown, E.J. & Heimberg, R.G. (2001). Effects of writing about rape: Evaluating Pennebaker's paradigm with a severe trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 781.


Burke, P. A., & Bradley, R. G. (2006). Language use in imagined dialogue and narrative disclosures of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 141-146.


Burton, C. M., & King, L. A. (2008). Effects of (very) brief writing on health; The two-minute miracle. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 9-14.


Burton, C. M., & King. L. A. (2004). The health benefits of writing about intensely positive experiences. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 150-163.


Cameron, L. D., & Nicholls, G. (1998). Expression of stressful experiences through writing: Effects of a self-regulation manipulation for pessimists and optimists. Health Psychology, 17, 84-92.


Campbell, R.S. & Pennebaker, J.W.  (2003). The secret life of pronouns: Flexibility in writing style and physical health.  Psychological Science, 14, 60-65.


Carmack, C. L., Basen‐Engquist, K., Yuan, Y., Greisinger, A., Rodriguez‐Bigas, M., Wolff, R. A., ... & Pennebaker, J. W. (2011). Feasibility of an expressive‐disclosure group intervention for post‐treatment colorectal cancer patients. Cancer, 117(21), 4993-5002.


Casey, C.Y., Greenberg, M.A., Nicassio, P.M., Harpin, R.E., & Hubbard, D. (2007, in press).  Transition from acute to chronic pain and disability: A model including cognitive, affective, and trauma factors.  Pain


Chaudoir, S. R., & Fisher, J. D. (2010). The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision making and postdisclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity. Psychological bulletin, 136(2), 236.


Cho, S., Bernstein, K. S., Cho, S., & Roh, S. (2012). Logo-autobiography and its effectiveness on depressed Korean immigrant women: A replication study.Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(6), p51.


Christensen A.J., Edwards D.L., Wiebe J.S., Benotsch E.G., McKelvey L., Andrews M., Lubaroff D.M. (1996). Effect of verbal self-disclosure on natural killer cell activity: Moderating influence of cynical hostility. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 150-155.


Christensen, A. J. & Smith, T. W. (1993). Cynical hostility and cardiovascular reactivity during self-disclosure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 193-202.


Chung, C.K., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2008).  Variations in spacing of expressive writing sessions.  British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 15-21.


Cohen, G.L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., & Master, A. (2006).  Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention.  Science, 313, 1307-1310.


Comprone, J. C., & Ronald, K. J. (2010). Expressive writing: Exercises in a new progymnasmata. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4(1), 31-54.


Consedine, N. S., Krivoshekova, Y. S., & Magai, C. (2012). Play It (Again) Sam Linguistic Changes Predict Improved Mental and Physical Health Among Older Adults. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 31(3), 240-262.


Cornoldi, C., Del Prete, F., Gallani, A., Sella, F., & Re, A. M. (2010). Components affecting expressive writing in typical and disabled writers.Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, 23, 269-286.


Corter, A., & Petrie, K. J. (2011). Expressive writing in patients diagnosed with cancer. In Emotion Regulation and Well-Being (pp. 297-306). Springer New York.


Craft, M. A., Davis, G. C., & Paulson, R. M. (2013). Expressive writing in early breast cancer survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(2), 305-315.


Creswell, J.D., Lam, S., Stanton, A.L., Taylor, S.E., Bower, J.E., & Sherman, D.K. (2007). Does Self-Affirmation, Cognitive Processing, or Discovery of Meaning Explain Cancer-Related Health Benefits of Expressive Writing? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 238-250.


Culp, M. B., & Spann, S. (2010). The influence of writing on reading. Journal of Teaching Writing, 4(2), 284-289.


Danoff-Burg, S., Mosher, C. E., Seawell, A. H., & Agee, J. D. (2010). Does narrative writing instruction enhance the benefits of expressive writing?.Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 23(3), 341-352.


Davis, C. G., & McKearney, J. M. (2003). How do people grow from their experience with trauma or loss? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 477-492.


De Giacomo, P., L'Abate, L., Pennebaker, J. W., & Rumbaugh, D. (2010). Amplifications and applications of Pennebaker's analogic to digital model in health promotion, prevention, and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(5), 355-362.


De Moor, C., Sterner, J., Hall, M., Warneke, C., Gilani, Z., Amato, R., et al. (2002). A pilot study of the effects of expressive writing on psychological and behavioral adjustment in patients enrolled in a phase II trial of vaccine therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Health Psychology, 21, 615-619.


Deacon, B. J., Lickel, J. J., Possis, E. A., Abramowitz, J. S., Mahaffey, B., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. (2012). Do Cognitive Reappraisal and Diaphragmatic Breathing Augment Interoceptive Exposure for Anxiety Sensitivity?. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 26(3), 257-269.


DeMarco, R. F., & Chan, K. (2013). The Sistah Powah Structured Writing Intervention: A Feasibility Study for Aging, Low-Income, HIV-Positive Black Women. American Journal of Health Promotion.


Deters, P. B., & Range, L. M. (2003). Does writing reduce posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms? Violence and Victims, 18, 569-580.


Dolev-Cohen, M., & Barak, A. (2012). Adolescents’ use of Instant Messaging as a means of emotional relief. Computers in Human Behavior.


Donnelly, D. A., & Murray, E. J. (1991). Cognitive and emotional changes in written essays and therapy interviews. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 334-350.


Drake, J. E., & Winner, E. (2012). How children use drawing to regulate their emotions. Cognition & Emotion, (ahead-of-print), 1-9.


Earnhardt, J. L., Martz, D. M., Ballard, M. E., & Curtin, L. (2002). A writing intervention for negative body image: Pennebaker fails to surpass the placebo. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 17, 19-35.


East, P., Startup, H., Roberts, C., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Expressive writing and eating disorder features: A preliminary trial in a student sample of the impact of three writing tasks on eating disorder symptoms and associated cognitive, affective and interpersonal factors. European Eating Disorders Review, 18(3), 180-196.


Ellis, D. & Cromby, J. (2009) Inhibition and reappraisal within emotional disclosure: the embodying of narration. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22, 319-331.


Epstein, E.M., Sloan, D.M., & Marx, B.P. (2005).  Getting to the heart of the matter: Written disclosure, gender, and heart rate.  Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 413-419


Esterling, B. A., Antoni, M. H., Fletcher, M. A., Margulies, S., & Schneiderman, N. (1994). Emotional disclosure through writing or speaking modulates latent Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 130-140.


Facchin, F., Margola, D., Molgora, S., & Revenson, T. A. (2013). Effects of Benefit‐Focused Versus Standard Expressive Writing on Adolescents' Self‐Concept During the High School Transition. Journal of Research on Adolescence.


Fernandez, I., Paez, D., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2009).  Comparison of expressive writing after the terrorist attacks of September 11th and March 11th.  International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9, 89-103.


Fivush, R., Marin, K., Crawford, M., Reynolds, M., & Brewin, C.R. (2007).  Children’s narratives and well-being.  Cognition and Emotion, 21, 1414-1434.


Floyd, K., Mikkelson, A.C., Hesse, C., & Pauley, P.M. (2007).  Affectionate writing reduces total cholesterol: Two randomized controlled trials.  Human Communication Research, 33, 119-142.


Francis, M.E. & Pennebaker, J.W. (1992). Putting stress into words: Writing about personal upheavals and health. American Journal of Health Promotion, 6, 280-287.


Frattaroli, J. (2006).  Experimental disclosure and its moderators: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 823-865.


Frattaroli, J., Thomas, M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2011).  Opening up in the classroom: Effects of expressive writing on graduate school entrance exam performance.  Emotion, 11,


Frayne, A., & Wade, T.D. (2006). A comparison of written emotional expression and planning with respect to bulimic symptoms and associated psychopathology. European Eating Disorders Review, 14, 329-340.


Freyd, J.J., Klest, B., & Allard, C.B.  (2005). Betrayal trauma: Relationship to physical health, psychological distress, and a written disclosure intervention. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 6, 83-104.


Frisina, P.G., Borod, J.C., & Lepore, S.J. (2004).  A meta-analysis of the effects of written emotional disclosure on the health outcomes of clinical populations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 629-634.


Furnes, B., & Dysvik, E. (2010). A systematic writing program as a tool in the grief process: part 1. Patient preference and adherence, 4, 425.


Gallagher, P., & MacLachlan, M. (2002). Evaluating a written emotional disclosure homework intervention for lower-limb amputees.  Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 83, 1464-1466.


Gallant, M. D., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2003). Effects of an emotional disclosure writing task on the physical and psychological functioning of children of alcoholics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 21, 55-66.


Gamber, A. M., Lane-Loney, S., & Levine, M. P. (2013). Effects and Linguistic Analysis of Written Traumatic Emotional Disclosure in an Eating-Disordered Population. The Permanente Journal, 17(1), 16.


Gellaitry, G., Peters, K., Bloomfield, D., & Horne, R. (2010). Narrowing the gap: The effects of an expressive writing intervention on perceptions of actual and ideal emotional support in women who have completed treatment for early stage breast cancer. Psycho‐Oncology, 19(1), 77-84.


Gidron, Y., Duncan, E., Lazar, A., Biderman, A., Tandeter, H., & Shvartzman, P. (2002). Effects of guided disclosure of stressful experiences on clinic visits and symptoms in frequent clinic attenders. Family Practice, 19, 161-166.


Gidron, Y., Gal, R., Freedman, S., Twiser, I., Lauden, A., Snir, Y., & Benjamin, J. (2001). Translating research findings to PTSD prevention: Results of a randomized-controlled pilot study, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 773-780.


Gidron, Y., Peri, T., Connolly, J. F., & Shalev, A. Y. (1996). Written disclosure in posttraumatic stress disorder: Is it beneficial for the patient? Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 184, 505- 507.


Gillam, T. (2010). The therapeutic value of writing. British Journal of Wellbeing• Vol, 1(6), 27.


Gillis, M.E., Lumley, M.A., Mosley-Williams, A., Leisen, J.C.C., & Roehrs, T.  (in press).  The health effects of at-home written emotional disclosure in fibromyalgia: A randomized trial.  Annals of Behavioral Medicine.


Gortner, E., Rude, S., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2006).  Benefits of expressive writing in lowering rumination and depressive symptoms.  Behavior Therapy, 37, 292-303


Graybeal, A., Seagal, J. D., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2002). The role of story-making in disclosure writing: The psychometrics of narrative. Psychology and Health, 17, 571-581.


Greenberg, M. A., & Stone, A. A. (1992). Emotional disclosure about traumas and its relation to health: Effects of previous disclosure and trauma severity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 75-84.


Greenberg, M. A., Stone, A. A., & Wortman, C. B. (1996). Health and psychological effects of emotional disclosure: A test of the inhibition-confrontation approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 588-602.


große Deters, F., & Mehl, M. R. (2012). Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment. Social Psychological and Personality Science.


Guinther, P. M., Segal, D. L., & Bogaards, J. A. (2003). Gender differences in emotional processing among bereaved older adults. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 8, 15-33.


Halpert, A., Rybin, D., & Doros, G. (2010). Expressive writing is a promising therapeutic modality for the management of IBS: A pilot study. The American journal of gastroenterology.


Hamilton-West, K.E., & Quine, L. (2007). Effects of written emotional disclosure on health outcomes in patients with ankylosin spondylitis. Psychology and Health, 22, 637-657.


Harber, K.D., & Wenberg, K.E.  (2005).  Emotional disclosure and closeness to offenders.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 734-746.


Harber, K.D., & Cohen, D. (2005). the emotional broadcaster theory of social sharing.  Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 382-400.


Harber, K.D., Einav-Cohen, M., & Lang, F. (in press).  They heard a cry: Psycho-social resources moderate perception of others' distress.  European Journal of Social Psychology. 


Harris, A. H. S. (2006). Does expressive writing reduce health care utilization? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 243-252.


Harris, A. H. S., Thoresen, C. E., Humpheys, K., & Faul, J. (2005). Does Expressive Writing Affect Asthma?: A Randomized Trial. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 130-136.


Harvey, A.G. & Farrel, C.  (2003).  The efficacy of the Pennebaker-like writing intervention for poor sleepers.  Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1, 115-124.


Hemenover, S. H. (2003). The good, the bad, and the healthy: Impacts of emotional disclosure of trauma on resilient self-concept and psychological distress, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1236-1244.


Henry, E. A., Schlegel, R. J., Talley, A. E., Molix, L. A., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2010, November). The feasibility and effectiveness of expressive writing for rural and urban breast cancer survivors. In oncology nursing forum (Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 749-757). Oncology Nursing Society.


Hevey, D., Wilczkiewicz, E., & Horgan, J. H. (2012). Type D moderates the effects of expressive writing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following myocardial infarction (MI). The Irish Journal of Psychology, 33(2-3), 107-114.


Hijazi, A. M., Tavakoli, S., Slavin-Spenny, O. M., & Lumley, M. A. (2011). Targeting interventions: Moderators of the effects of expressive writing and assertiveness training on the adjustment of international university students.International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 33(2), 101-112.


Hirai, M., Skidmore, S. T., Clum, G. A., & Dolma, S. (2012). An Investigation of the Efficacy of Online Expressive Writing for Trauma-Related Psychological Distress in Hispanic Individuals. Behavior therapy.


Hockemeyer, J., Smyth, J., Anderson, C., & Stone, A. (1999). Is it safe to write? Evaluating the short-term distress produced by writing about emotionally traumatic experiences. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61 [Abstract]


Honos-Webb, L., Harrick, E.A., Stiles, W.B., & Park, C. (2000). Assimilation of traumatic experiences and physical-health outcomes: Cautions for the Pennebaker paradigm. Psychotherapy, 37, 307-314.


Horn, A.B., & Mehl, M.R. (2004).  Expressives Schreiben als Copingtechnik: Ein Überblick über den Stand der Forschung.  Verhaltenstherapie, 14, 274-283.


Horn, A.B., Possel, P., & Hautzinger, M. (2011, in press).  Promoting adaptive emotion regulation and coping in adolescence: A school-based program.  Journal of Health Psychology,


Hoyt, M. A., Stanton, A. L., Bower, J. E., Thomas, K. S., Litwin, M. S., Breen, E. C., & Irwin, M. R. (2013). Inflammatory Biomarkers and Emotional Approach Coping in Men with Prostate Cancer. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.


Hoyt, T., & Yeater, E. A. (2011). The Effects of Negative Emotion and Expressive Writing on Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(6), 549-569.


Hsu, M. C., Schubiner, H., Stracks, J. S., & Clauw, D. J. (2010). Sustained pain reduction through affective self-awareness in fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of general internal medicine, 25(10), 1064-1070.


Imrie, S., & Troop, N.A. (2012). A pilot study on the effects and feasibility of compassion-focused expressive writing in Day Hospice patients.  Palliative and Supportive Care, doi:10.1017/S1478951512000181


Jacobson, L. T., & Reid, R. (2012). Improving the writing performance of high school students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and writing difficulties. Exceptionality, 20(4), 218-234.


Jensen‐Johansen, M. B., Christensen, S., Valdimarsdottir, H., Zakowski, S., Jensen, A. B., Bovbjerg, D. H., & Zachariae, R. (2012). Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer‐related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors—results from a nationwide randomized clinical trial. Psycho‐Oncology.


Johnston, O., Startup, H., Lavender, A., Godfrey, E., & Schmidt, U. (2010). Therapeutic writing as an intervention for symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa: Effects and mechanism of change. International Journal of Eating Disorders,43(5), 405-419.


Joseph, L.M., & Greenberg, M.A. (2001).  The effects of a career transition program on reemployment success in laid-off professionals.  Consulting Psychology Journal, 53, 169-181.


Kalantari, M., Yule, W., Dyregrov, A., Neshatdoost, H., & Ahmadi, S. J. (2012). Efficacy of writing for recovery on traumatic grief symptoms of Afghani refugee bereaved adolescents: a randomized control trial. OMEGA--Journal of Death and Dying, 65(2), 139-150.


Kaptein, A. A., Lyons, A. C., Pearson, A. S., van der Geest, S., Haan, J., Meulenberg, F., & Smyth, J. M. (2012). Storying stories. Medical Education Development, 2(1), e7.


Kearns, M. C., Edwards, K. M., Calhoun, K. S., & Gidycz, C. A. (2010). Disclosure of sexual victimization: The effects of Pennebaker's emotional disclosure paradigm on physical and psychological distress. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 11(2), 193-209.


Kelley J.E., Lumley M.A., Leisen J.C. (1997). Health effects of emotional disclosure in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Health Psychology, 16, 331-340.


Kellogg, R. T., Mertz, H. K., & Morgan, M. (2010). Do gains in working memory capacity explain the written self-disclosure effect?. Cognition and Emotion,24(1), 86-93.


Kelly, A. E., Klusas, J. A., von Weiss, R. T., & Kenny, C. (2001). What is it about revealing secrets that is beneficial? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 651-665.


Kelly, R. E., Wood, A. M., Shearman, K., Phillips, S., & Mansell, W. (2012). Encouraging acceptance of ambivalence using the expressive writing paradigm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice,85(2), 220-228.


Kim, Y. (2008). Effects of expressive writing among bilinguals: Exploring psychological well-being and social behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 43-47.


King, L. A. (2001). The health benefits of writing about life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 798-807.


King, L. A. & Miner, K. N. (2000). Writing about the perceived benefits of traumatic events: Implications for physical health. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 220-230.


Kirk, B. A., Schutte, N. S., & Hine, D. W. (2011). The Effect of an Expressive‐Writing Intervention for Employees on Emotional Self‐Efficacy, Emotional Intelligence, Affect, and Workplace Incivility. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(1), 179-195.


Klapow, J.C., Schmidt, S.M., Taylor, L.A., Roller, P., Li, Q., Calhoun, J.W., Wallander, J., & Pennebaker, J.W. (2001). Symptom management in older primary care patients: Feasibility of an experimental, written self-disclosure protocol. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134, 905-911.


Klein, K., & Boals, A. (2001). Expressive writing can increase working memory capacity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 520-533.


Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Farrell, A. D., Allison, K. W., Meyer, A. L., Sullivan, T. N., & Greene, A. Y. (2011). A school-based expressive writing intervention for at-risk urban adolescents' aggressive behavior and emotional lability.Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 693-705.


Kloss, J.D., & Lisman, S.A. (2002). An exposure-based examination of the effects of written emotional disclosure. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 31-46.


Knowles, E. D., Wearing, J. R., & Campos, B. (2011). Culture and the health benefits of expressive writing. Social Psychological and Personality Science,2(4), 408-415.


Ko, H.-C., & Kuo, F.-Y. (in press). Can blogging enhance subjective well-being through self-disclosure? CyberPsychology & Behavior.


Koopman, C., Ismailji, T., Holmes, D., Classen, C.C., Palesh, O., & Wales, T. (2005).  The effects of expressive writing on pain, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in survivors of intimate partner violence.  Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 211-221.


Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M. (2000). Writing projects: Lessening undergraduates' unique suicidal bereavement. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 30, 50-60.


Kovac, S. H., & Range, L. M. (2002). Does writing about suicidal thoughts and feelings reduce them? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32, 428-440.


Kowalski, R. M., & Cantrell, C. C. (2002). Intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences of complaints. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 26, 26-33.


Kraaij, V., van Emmerik, A., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M. J., Lo-Fo-Wong, D., van Empelen, P., ... & Maes, S. (2010). Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling, 80(2), 200-204.


Krantz, A.M. & Pennebaker, J.W. (2007). Expressive dance, writing, trauma, and health: When words have a body. In I.A. Serlin, J Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (Eds), Whole person healthcare Vol 3: The Arts and Health (pp 201-229). Westport, CT: Praeger.


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