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SCALES WE'VE DEVELOPED

Below you will find links to some instruments we have created. Each measure has been validated and published.  We provide downloadable copies of the scales, corresponding articles, and normative data (in pdf format)Researchers are free to use these scales. NO NEED TO ASK ME FOR PERMISSION. If you have questions regarding any of these scales or this website let me know.

 

Ten Item Personality Measure (TIPI)

Short Test Of Music Preferences (STOMP)

Personal Living Space Cue Inventory (PLSCI)

Dog Personality Questionnaire (DPQ)
 

 

 

Ten Item Personality Measure (TIPI)

The TIPI is a 10-item measure of the Big Five (or Five-Factor Model) dimensions. Before you use this instrument, please read this note on alpha reliability and factor structure.

Original reference:

     Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (2003). A Very Brief Measure of the Big Five Personality Domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 504-528.

Abstract

When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test-retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big Five dimensions is offered for situations when very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.

More information:

1. TIPI manuscript (pdf format)

2. TIPI scale (html)

3. TIPI scale (pdf format)

4. TIPI norms (in pdf from Jason Rentfrow's online study of Music Preferences): Male Norms; Female Norms 

Scoring the TIPI

1. Recode the reverse-scored items (i.e., recode a 7 with a 1, a 6 with a 2, a 5 with a 3, etc.). The reverse scored items are 2, 4, 6, 8, & 10.

2. Take the AVERAGE of the two items (the standard item and the recoded reverse-scored item) that make up each scale.

Example using the Extraversion scale: A participant has scores of 5 on item 1 (Extraverted, enthusiastic) and and 2 on item 6 (Reserved, quiet). First, recode the reverse-scored item (i.e., item 6), replacing the 2 with a 6. Second, take the average of the score for item 1 and the (recoded) score for item 6. So the TIPI Extraversion scale score would be: (5 + 6)/2 = 5.5

 

LOOKING FOR A QUICK WAY TO COMPUTE AND DISPLAY TIPI SCORES?

Daniel DeNeui has created an excel spreadsheet, which computes your scores and plots them alongside the norms we have published. Click here to get a copy of the spreadsheet. If you have any questions about the spreadsheet please contact Dr. DeNeui.

Justin Cheng has created an spss syntax file to compute the scores. Click here to get a copy. If you have any questions about it, please contact Justin.

 

Comparisons with other very brief Big Five scales

In response to the need for very brief measures of the Big Five, a couple of other measures have been developed in addition to the TIPI. These include the Single-Item Measure of Personality (SIMP; Wood & Hampson, 2005) and another 10-item measure (Rammstedt & John, 2007). In my own (unpublished) analyses all three instruments perform about equally well in terms of convergence with the NEO-PI-R assessed several weeks later. Moreover, all three instruments take about the same length of time to complete (because the 5 items of the SIMP are longer and more complex than than the items in the 10-item tests). The one published analysis (Furnham, 2008) that compared several very brief measures suggested that the TIPI "achieves slightly better validity than the other measures."

 

Translations

These translations have been provided by their developers for research use. I have included them here as a resource for researchers but their inclusion does not imply that I endorse them. They differ in the procedures used to develop them and the degree to which they have been validated. I did not develop them and have not used them in my own research so I cannot evaluate them.  For further details on the instruments, please contact their authors. As far as I know, you are free to use these translations but as a courtesy I encourage you to contact the contact persons listed below before doing so.

CATALAN

A Catalan version is available here (in pdf format). This document also includes a Castillian version. It was developed by Ursula Oberst and Vanessa Renau Ruiz.

The validation of the instrument is described in:

Renau, V., Oberst, U., Gosling, S. D., Rusiñol, J., & Chamarro, A (2013). Translation and validation of the Ten-Item-Personality Inventory into Spanish and Catalan. Aloma.Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l'Educació i de l'Esport, 31, 85-97.

 

CHINESE (TRADITIONAL)

A Chinese version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Minyan Huang, Ye Chen, and Hillary Anger Elfenbein.  

Another Chinese version of the TIPI is available  here (in pdf format). It was developed by Jean Tzou and Lise DeShea.  

DUTCH (2)

A Dutch version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Sander Koole.  

An analysis of a revised five-item version of the Dutch TIPI, the TIPI-r (in which the two items on each scale were converted to a single item) is available here (in pdf format). For questions about this scale or about a Dutch translation of the 44-item BFI, email Jaap Denissen.

A second Dutch version of the TIPI is available here (in word format) along with an article by Joeri Hofmans, Peter Kuppens, and Juri Allik describing how it was validated.

FARSI (PERSIAN)

A Farsi version of the TIPI is available here (in pdf format). It was developed by Madjid Mirzavaziri, Hamid Vazire, and Simine Vazire in collaboration with Mohsen Joshanloo.

FRENCH

A French version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Erica Carlisle.

A revised version of the Carlisle instrument is available here (in pdf format). It eliminates three additional (non-TIPI) items, lists the traits in both masculine and feminine form, and uses the original TIPI item order. The revision was made by Mike Friedman.

GERMAN

A German version of the TIPI is available here (in word format) or by emailing the authors Benedikt Hell and Peter M. Muck.

The validation of this instrument is described in:

Muck, P. M., Hell, B, & Gosling, S. D. (2007). Construct validation of a short Five-Factor Model instrument: A self-peer study on the German adaptation of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-G). European Journal of Personality Assessment. Please email  Benedikt Hell or Peter M. Muck for information on this paper.

GREEK

A Greek version of the TIPI is available  here (in pdf format). It was developed by Eleni Karfopoulou.

HEBREW

A Hebrew version of the TIPI is available here (in word format). It was developed by Sigal Tifferet.

ITALIAN

An Italian version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Erica Carlisle.

JAPANESE

A Japanese  version of the TIPI is available  here (in pdf format). It was developed by Atsushi Oshio, Shingo Abe, and Pino Cutrone.

The validation of the instrument is described in:

Oshio, A., Abe, S., & Cutrone, P. (2012). Development, reliability, and validity of the Japanese Version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J). The Japanese Journal of Personality, 21, 40-52.

KOREAN

A Korean  version of the TIPI is available  here (in pdf format). It was developed by Shang E. Ha.

NEPALESE

A Nepalese version of the TIPI is available  here (in pdf format). It was developed by Ho Pui Chan.

NORWEGIAN

A Norwegian version of the TIPI is available here (in word format) or by emailing the author Cristina Aicher.

POLISH

A Polish version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Mariola Laguna. Some basic psychometric information is available here (in word format).

PORTUGESE

A Portugese (Brazilian Portugese) version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Carlos Eduardo Pimentel

A Portugese (European Portugese) version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Sao Luis Castro and Cesar Lima.

SPANISH (5)

Five Spanish versions of the TIPI are available:

One version is available here (in pdf format). This document includes both Castillian and Catalan versions. It was developed by Ursula Oberst and Vanessa Renau Ruiz.

The validation of the instrument is described in:

Renau, V., Oberst, U., Gosling, S. D., Rusiñol, J., & Chamarro, A (2013). Translation and validation of the Ten-Item-Personality Inventory into Spanish and Catalan. Aloma.Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l'Educació i de l'Esport, 31, 85-97.

Another version is available here (in pdf format). It was developed by Cesar A. Merino Soto.

Another version is available here (in word format). It was developed by Carmelo Vazquez.

Another version  is available here (in word format). It was developed by Nairan Ramirez.

Another version is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Erica Carlisle.

SWEDISH

A Swedish version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was originally developed by Erica Carlisle and revised and updated by Emil Lundell.

TURKISH

A Turkish version of the TIPI is available  here (in word format). It was developed by Hason Atak. Some basic psychometric information is available here (in word format).

 

Bibliography

I no longer keep up with the papers that use the TIPI so if you're interested in seeing the papers that cite the original TIPI paper, check out the paper on Google Scholar. If some reason (I can't imagine what that reason would be) you want to see the old (now out-of-date) list of references that used to live here, you can do so here.

 

 

 

 

Short Test Of Music Preferences (STOMP)

The STOMP is a 14-item scale assessing preferences in music genres.  It assesses four broad music-preference dimensions. The STOMPR is a revised version of the scale assessing preferences for 23 genres.

Original reference: 

     Rentfrow, P. J., & Gosling, S. D. (2003). The do re mi’s of everyday life: The structure and personality correlates of music preferences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1236-1256.

Abstract

The present research examines individual differences in music preferences. A series of six studies investigated lay beliefs about music, the structure underlying music preferences, and the links between music preferences and personality. The data indicated that people consider music to be an important aspect of their lives and listening to music as an activity they engaged in frequently. Using multiple samples, methods, and geographic regions, analyses of the music preferences of over 3,500 individuals converged to reveal four music-preference dimensions: Reflective and Complex, Intense and Rebellious, Upbeat and Conventional, and Energetic and Rhythmic. Preference for these music dimensions were related to a wide array of personality dimensions (e.g., Openness), self-views (e.g., political orientation), and cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal ability).

More information:

1. STOMP manuscript (pdf format)

2. STOMP scale (html) ** 

3. STOMP scale (pdf format)

4. STOMP norms (pdf format)  Rentfrow P. J. & Gosling S. D. (2003). Norms for the Short Test of Music Preferences. Unpublished data, University of Texas at Austin

**We're continuing to develop the STOMP by adding new music genres.  If you are considering using it, please contact us for an updated version.**  The latest version, the STOMPR, is available here.

A Portugese (Brazilian Portugese) version of the STOMP is available  here (in pdf format) as part of a larger scientific report on the instrument. It was developed by Carlos Eduardo Pimentel.

 

 

 

 

 

Personal Living Space Cue Inventory (PLSCI)

The PLSCI is designed to help researchers document the contents of Personal Living Spaces (e.g. rooms in dorms or residential centers). The instrument has several hundred items on it but you should feel free to use just portions of it if that's what suits your research questions. The PLSCI includes broad ratings (e.g., clean vs. dirty; drafty vs. stuffy; gloomy vs. cheerful) and codings of specific items (e.g., scissors, sports related decor, ash tray). 

Original reference: 

     Gosling, S. D., Craik, K. H., Martin, N. R., & Pryor, M. R. (2005). The Personal Living Space Cue Inventory: An analysis and evaluation. Environment and Behavior, 37, 683-705.

Abstract

We introduce the Personal Living Space Cue Inventory (PLSCI), designed to document comprehensively features of Personal Living Spaces (PLS); common examples of PLSs include rooms in family households, dormitories, or residential centers. We describe the PLSCI’s development, and provide evidence for its reliability and sensitivity. Next, we employ case-study comparisons to illustrate and evaluate the perspectives provided by global descriptors and specific content codings. We conclude that global ratings and specific codings provide complementary yet distinct characterizations of PLSs.

More information:

1. PLSCI manuscript [in pdf format] 

2. Norms based on assessments of 83 Personal Living Spaces are available in: Gosling, S. D., Craik, K. H., Martin, N. R., & Pryor, M. R. (2005). Material attributes of Personal Living Spaces. Home Cultures, 2, 51-88 [available in pdf].  This paper presents a broad conceptual framework for exploring the meanings conveyed by the attributes and item contents of Personal Living Spaces, focusing on three personal characteristics of residents: gender, ethnicity, and personality.

 

 

 

 

Dog Personality Questionnaire (DPQ)

The DPQ was developed and designed in collaboration with Amanda Jones. Amanda developed it as her Ph.D. thesis. There is a long and a short version of the questionnaire. Both versions were extensively validated. You can read about the validation studies in Amanda's dissertation.

Researchers sometimes ask me for copies of the Canine-Big Five Inventory (that we used in Gosling, Kwan, & John, 2003, JPSP). However, that instrument has not been validated in dogs so I recommend using the DPQ instead because it has been validated. 

Original reference: 

     Jones, A. C. (2009). Development and validation of a dog personality questionnaire. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Texas, Austin.

Abstract

Many groups, such as rescue and service-dog programs, are interested in assessing dogs’ personalities. These groups often need to assess large numbers of dogs with limited resources (e.g., in terms of facilities, trained assessors, time, money). To meet these groups’ requirements, an assessment tool that measures canine personality rapidly and is demonstrably reliable and valid is needed. The Dog Personality Questionnaire (DPQ) was developed to fill this gap. This dissertation describes a series of six studies designed to develop and evaluate the DPQ.

To ensure that the final instrument built on previous research and was based on a comprehensive item pool, 1,200 descriptions were culled from the dog-personality assessment literature, shelter assessments, and dog experts’ input (e.g., researchers, trainers, veterinarians). Three expert judges narrowed this list to 360 items. In Study 1, these items were administered to 152 participants who gave feedback on the items’ applicability and ease of use.

In Study 2, exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the number of factors underlying the 360-item questionnaire, based on 3,737 participants’ ratings of their dogs. Convergent criteria favored five factors, labeled as Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Aggression towards Animals, Activity/Excitability, and Responsiveness to Training. Narrower facets within each factor were also identified. On the basis of item analyses, the questionnaire was shortened to 102 items.

In Study 3, the 102-item questionnaire was administered to 2,556 new participants and further exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the robustness of the five-factor solution. Items were then evaluated in terms of factor- and facet-loadings, content validity, internal consistency, and other criteria in order to shorten the questionnaire to a more manageable, 75-item form, and an even briefer 45-item form.

In Studies 4-6, the psychometric properties of the 75-item and 45-item DPQ were further evaluated. The DPQ was shown to have acceptable levels of inter-rater reliability (Study 4), test-retest reliability (Study 5), and predictive validity (Study 6). Discussion focuses on evaluating how well the DPQ meets the criteria that guided its development.

More information:

1. Dog Personality Questionnaire (DPQ) Long and Short forms (including scoring instructions)

2. Amanda Jones' 2008 dissertation

 

 

 

 

[Social-Personality Area]    [Department of Psychology]    [University of Texas]

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Last modified: October 12, 2011